According to abbreviationfinder, Trondheim is the third largest city of Norway, on the inner Trondheimsfjord on a reflowed from Nidelv peninsula and the surrounding heights, (2021) 207 600 residents.
Seat of a Lutheran bishop; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, colleges, art academy, research institutes, etc. Norwegian Research Institute for Marine Technology; Maritime, school, open-air museum, museum for handicrafts, for musical instruments, science museum of the university; Shipbuilding, electrotechnical, metal, food, wood industries; ice-free port, railway junction.
The Nidaros Cathedral, erected above the grave of Olaf the Holy, is the most important medieval building in the country (expanded after 1248, completed in the 19th century) and the coronation church of the Norwegian kings: transept and chapter house in late Romanesque influenced by Anglo-Norman (mid-12th century), Gothic high choir, richly structured west facade with rose window and sculptures (begun in 1248). South of the cathedral is the medieval stone building of the former archbishop’s residence (now a museum). The Gothic Church of Our Lady (Vår Frue kirke, 13th century) was built in the 16th and 17th centuries. Rebuilt in the 19th century. Kristiansten Fortress was built in 1682–84.
In 997 King Olaf I Tryggvasson had the royal court “Nidarnes” and a church built here; the soon developing city was called Nidaros. As the burial place of King Olaf the Holy (Olaf II. Haraldsson), it became the center of his worship (destination of large streams of pilgrims). Trondheim was the most important royal residence until the 13th century, the seat of archbishopric since 1152 and developed into the cultural center of the country. The economic upswing based on the timber trade largely compensated for the loss of political importance that began with the Reformation.
As in the Middle Ages, Trondheim has been the coronation city of the Norwegian kings again since 1814.
Reichsstrasse No. 1 in Norway
Norway’s “Reichsstrasse No. 1” lies on the water. It is the route of the mail ships that connects Bergen in the south with Kirkenes in the far north, 10 km from the Russian border. The Hurtigrute – that’s the official name of the shipping line – has been used since 1893. Since then, the black and red ships have been calling at all port cities in western and northern Norway. Twelve ships will be used to connect the 33 ports on the 2,300 km long route.
In 1891 the Norwegian Ministry of the Interior put out a tender for a fast connection between Trondheim and Vadsø and donated 150,000 kroner to the company, which maintains a connection between Trondheim and Svolvær twice a week that does not take longer than 48 hours. Because of the difficult visibility in winter, individual stretches of the connection were only driven when the many small islands and cliffs off the coast could also be made out. Numerous places on the coast were therefore often without connection to the outside world for weeks, because they could not be reached by land either. The captain and shipowner Richard With (* 1846, † 1930) now had the idea of setting up a mail boat connection along the coast that could be used in all seasons, day and night. It took him two years to have precise navigation tables drawn up that would enable the skippers to use the compass to stay on course even in poor visibility and rough seas. At the beginning of July 1893, the first mail ship of the Vesteraalske Dampskibsselskap shipping company began operating on the Hurtigrute between Trondheim and Hammerfest. Initially, the ships ran weekly – in winter to Tromsö – and then daily from 1936.
Right from the start, the Hurtiglinie’s mail ships had carried passengers as well as freight. The shipping line thus developed into the most important transport link along the Norwegian coast. Only recently have their cars, trains and airplanes started to compete with them. The trip between Bergen and Kirkenes takes eleven days there and back. A trip on the Hurtiglinie’s post boats has long been a tourist attraction. The ships always sail close to the coast so that passengers can enjoy the coastal panorama. At the individual ports, tourists can also leave the ship for day trips and continue with another ship on the route. Crossing the Arctic Circle, which is based on modern, Ships of the line similar to the cruise liners are usually combined with a small celebration for the tourists. The older ships do not offer this “touch of luxury”; they are practical and sober designed as transport ships. In the meantime, passenger traffic is of considerable economic importance for the Hurtiglinie: while in 1980 “only” around 260,000 passengers were carried, by 2002 the number had grown to around 450,000. The number of passengers traveling north is approximately 20,000 more than those traveling south.
Since the line has taken over the official postal service, it is financially supported by the Norwegian state. At least the subsidization of the parts of the route south of Trondheim is expected to stop in Norway by 2006. In order to compensate for the loss of income, the shipping company wants to transport more passengers with more modern and larger ferries in the summer.
Norway’s formerly important merchant fleet has shrunk to 15.2 million GT (2015). Since the Norwegian International Ship Register was introduced in 1987, most of the Norwegian ships have been registered in it. The fleet of supply and support ships for oil production has increased significantly. The ferry traffic over the numerous fjords is in the hands of the provinces. Along the Norwegian coast, 12 ships operate on the Hurtigrute, calling at the ports between Bergen and Kirkenes every day. Today the line is mainly used for tourism. The connection with other countries (Denmark, Great Britain, Iceland, Germany and Sweden) is maintained via ferry lines.
Norway has 52 airports with scheduled flights, which also handle brisk domestic traffic. The most important international airport is Gardermoen, north of Oslo (opened in 1998); it is connected to the main train station in Oslo by a rapid transit train.