According to abbreviationfinder, Tampere, Swedish Tammerfors, is an industrial city in western Finland, capital of the Pirkanmaa region, between two lakes on the Tammer rapids, which have been developed for energy generation, (2018) 235 200 residents.
Evangelical Lutheran bishopric; University (founded in 1966 as a merger of three faculties), TU (founded in 1972), theater, museums. The economy is determined by information technology, chemical, food, paper, electrical industry, mechanical engineering, metal processing; Tourism; Transport hub, airport.
Factory buildings and the workers’ district of Amuri (around 1900) have been preserved; today, in addition to the cathedral built by Lars Sonck (* 1870, † 1956) in 1902–07 and the city theater (1913), buildings by R. Pietilä (Kaleva Church, 1964–66; library, 1986) shape the cityscape. 1987-89 the music and congress hall was built.
Tampere was founded in 1775 by King Gustav III. Founded by Sweden and developed into an important industrial location under Russian sovereignty after 1819.
Finnish music, elements from prehistoric times have been preserved in Finnish folk music, v. a. in the partly pentatonic rune melodies to which, accompanied by the five-string kantele, pieces from the Kalevala epic are sung.
The Finnish hymn developed in the 16th century, an art music in its own right since the 19th century. A music institute (later the Sibelius Academy) and a municipal orchestra (the oldest in Scandinavia) were founded in Helsinki in 1882. The musicians initially followed the tradition of the German composers whose students they were until J. Sibelius coined a style that was perceived as national and recognized internationally. Among his contemporaries are known: Ilmari Krohn (* 1867, † 1960, also music scholar), E. A. Järnefelt, Erkki Melartin (* 1875, † 1937), Selim Palmgren (* 1878, † 1951), Toivo Kuula (* 1883, † 1918), Armas Launis (* 1884, † 1959, also folk song researcher), the song composer Y. H. Kilpinen and Aarre Merikanto (* 1893, † 1958). Joonas Kokkonen (* 1921, † 1996) and his students A. Sallinen and Paavo Heininen (* 1938) emerged from the next generation as opera composers.
Bergman was the first Finnish composer to take up continental suggestions of new music and especially of the serial technique. He was followed by, among others. E. Rautavaara and Erkki Salmenhaara (* 1941, † 2002). Magnus Lindberg (* 1958),who was trained at IRCAM in Paris,has received numerous international awards. Together with his colleague K. Saariaho ,who has been writing computermusic andhas lived in Paris since 1982, he founded the composer group »Korvat auki« (German »ears open«) in 1977 to promote contemporary music.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, Finnish folk music has experienced a revival, which began in the 1970s with the renaissance of minstrel music and has a permanent center with the annual folk music festival in Kaustinen since 1968. At the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, numerous musicians are trained in a folk music department for the extremely lively field of folk music. Courses for jazz musicians have also been set up at the Sibelius Academy and at the Oulunkylä Pop and Jazz Institute in Helsinki; The UMO Jazz Orchestra, founded in 1975, serves as a talent factory for young jazz musicians. Internationally successful rock music comes from heavy metal and gothic rock bands (Nightwish, Children of Bodom, The 69 Eyes),
In 1993 the Finnish National Opera Helsinki, which until then had its domicile in the Alexander Theater, got its own opera house.
Since the 1980s, female writers have increasingly shaped Finnish literature; Particularly noteworthy are Annika Idström (* 1947), Anja Kauranen (today Snellman, * 1954), R. Siekkinen , Leena Lander (* 1955) and Pirjo Hassinen (* 1957). Vision and fiction mix in the recently essayistic prose by Leena Krohn (* 1947); her subjects are also the environment, anthropocentrism, virtual reality and artificial intelligence. Representatives of the crime novel such as Matti Yrjänä Joensuu (* 1948) and Leena Lehtolainen (* 1964) analyze areas of Finnish society. Aarto Paasilinna (* 1942, † 2018) is also known abroad for his humorous picaresque novels. Kari Hotakainen (* 1958) and Petri Tamminen (* 1966) thematize, also humorously, today’s Finnish family life from the man’s point of view, as does Juha Seppälä (* 1956), which is also darker. Olli Jalonen (* 1954) also deals with questions of modern society in his prose works. Rosa Liksom (* 1958) describes the absurd in various areas of life, including in their northern Finnish homeland and the urban subculture. Other contemporary prose authors are Markus Nummi (* 1959), Juha Itkonen (* 1975), Sofi Okasanen (* 1977) and Katja Kettu (* 1978).
Jansson became known worldwide in the field of children’s and young people’s literature with her stories about the Moomin troll, which are in the tradition of Anglo-Saxon fantasy literature. Finnish children’s and youth literature, founded by Z. Topelius and A. Swan , has other outstanding representatives in Aili Konttinen (* 1947), who wrote about children who were sent to Sweden during the war, and in Kirsi Kunnas (* 1950) with poems for children. The most productive and idiosyncratic Finnish authors of books for children and young people today are Tuula Kallioniemi (* 1951), Mauri Kunnas (* 1950) and Jukka Parkkinen (* 1948).
With the works of Reko Lundán (* 1969), contemporary Finnish dramatic literature includes ironic analyzes of economic life and society in Finland. Laura Ruohonen (* 1960), with her dramas, which have also been successful abroad, focuses on the absurd aspects of life and addresses questions of power, morality and identity.
Representatives of different generations such as Sirkka Turkka (* 1939), Pentti Saaritsa (* 1941), Risto Ahti (* 1943), Jarkko Laine (* 1947), Risto Rasa (* 1954) with natural poems, Arto Melleri (* 1956, † 2005) as well as Jouni Inkala (* 1966) and Tomi Kontio (* 1966).
So far, one Finnish writer has received the Nobel Prize for Literature: F. E. Sillanpää (1939). – Swedish literature on Finnish literature in Swedish.