Switzerland between the World Wars

The Versailles Treaty (1919) recognized Switzerland’s neutrality.

Under Federal Councilor G. Motta, she joined the League of Nations in May 1920; In doing so, it renounced the principle of fundamental, “integral” neutrality in favor of a “differential”, ie. H. participation in non-military League of Nations sanctions against aggressors. Before joining, the League of Nations recognized this principle in its London Declaration (February 13, 1920). Geneva became the seat of the League of Nations. With the adoption of the Swiss currency (1920) and the conclusion of a customs union (1923), the Principality of Liechtenstein closely followed Switzerland. It was one of the first states to recognize the case law of the Permanent International Court of Justice in The Hague and signed an arbitration agreement with Germany in 1921 and Italy in 1924. In the 1920s and 30s, according to extrareference, Switzerland was confronted with the irredentist claims of fascist Italy on Ticino. In 1934 the Permanent International Court of Justice in The Hague rejected French demands to abolish the duty-free zones created in Savoy for Switzerland.

In the National Council elections of 1919, the Liberal Democratic Party of Switzerland (FDP, Freisinn) by introducing proportional representation, their absolute majority; it joined forces with the Catholic Conservatives in the fight against the strengthening SPS to form a “citizens’ block”, which was also joined by peasant groups, later organized in the Farmers’, Trade and Citizens’ Party (BGB). At the expense of the FDP, the Catholic Conservatives were able to occupy two seats in the seven-member Federal Council since 1919, and the BGB since 1929. After the SPS had refused to join the Communist International by splitting off a Communist Party (CP), it developed – in practice, still orientated towards Marxism – more strongly into a cross-class people’s party. In the course of the global economic crisis (since 1929), an economic depression set in in Switzerland in 1931. A crisis initiative initiated by the trade unions which sought to overcome economic stagnation with domestic economic control measures (e.g. control of capital exports) was narrowly rejected in a referendum (June 2, 1935). With a popularly approved devaluation of the franc, the Federal Council sought to revive the economy in 1936 and reduce unemployment (124,000 in January 1936).

In the National Council elections of September 1935, the SPS became the strongest party. The economic-social crisis triggered criticism of the liberal state, with left and right-wing radical tendencies increasing each other. The “frontism” (fronts) oriented towards National Socialism (Germany) and fascism (Italy) did not get beyond initial successes. He not only questioned the democratic-liberal basic order, but also the very existence of Switzerland as a state. Under the impression of external threats, the Federal Council implemented a reorganization of the army in 1935 (in charge: Federal Councilor Rudolf Minger, * 1881, † 1955). On the initiative of the Federal Councilor P. Etter On February 20, 1938, the population agreed to the elevation of Rhaeto-Romanic as the fourth national language. After the failure of the League of Nations’ policy of sanctions against fascist Italy, in which Switzerland had participated in the spirit of “differential” neutrality, Swiss foreign policy returned in May 1938 to an unrestricted (“integral”) policy of neutrality. In the sign of the threat of v. a. through Germany and Italy, the political forces from the “right” to the “left” committed themselves to “intellectual national defense”.

Swiss radio and television company

Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, French Société suisse de radio et télévision diffusion [s ɔ sje te s ɥ is də radiodify zj ɔ e Televi zj ɔ ], Italian Società Svizzera di radiotelevisione [sot ʃ e ta], Romansh Societad svizra da radio e televisiun [s ɔ t ʃ -], official name SRG SSR, broadcasting company founded in 1931 as the »Schweizerische Rundspruch-Gesellschaft«, seat: Bern. SRG SSR is divided into five independent corporate units. It is financed for the most part from fee income (75%) as well as advertising money and sponsorship (25%). The subsidiaries include Media service providers and production companies. SRG SSR is sponsored by the four regional companies SRG.D (German-speaking Switzerland), RTSR (Société de radiodiffusion et de télévision de la Suisse Romande), CORSI (Società cooperativa per la radiotelevisione nella Svizzera Italiana) and SRG.R (SRG SSR Svizra) Rumantscha).SRG SSR broadcasts seven television programs (three in German: »SRF1«, »SFR2« and »SRF Info«; two French and two Italian language programs as well as Romansh programs on »SRF1«) and 17 radio programs: six German, four French, three Italian-language, one Romansh program and three music programs via satellite (“Swiss Satellite Radio”, SSatR). “Swissinfo” is an internet platform for foreign countries (ten languages). In addition, SRG SSR participates in the cultural programs “3sat” and “ARTE” as well as in the French joint program “TV5”.

Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches

Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches, abbreviation SEK, Association of Protestant Churches in Switzerland; Headquarters: Bern and an office in Geneva. Members are the Reformed churches of the cantons of Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Land, Basel-Stadt, Freiburg, Geneva, Glarus, Graubünden, Lucerne, Neuchâtel, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Solothurn, Ticino, Thurgau, Vaud, Valais, Zurich, the Evangelical-Reformed Synodal Association Bern-Jura, the Evangelical-Reformed Church Association Central Switzerland, the Free Evangelical Church of Geneva and the Evangelical Methodist Church as well as the Swiss Protestant churches abroad. – The SEK sees itself as a representative body and advocate of the interests of Swiss Protestantism, whose concerns it represents nationally and internationally.

Switzerland between the World Wars