According to abbreviationfinder, Stavanger is the capital of the province (Fylke) Rogaland, southwest Norway, at the exit of the Boknfjord, with (2021) 144 100 residents the fourth largest city in Norway.
Seat of an Evangelical Lutheran bishop; University (founded in 2005); Norwegian Oil Museum, Maritime Museum, Archaeological Museum, Regional Museum with Library, Canning Museum, Art Gallery.
Through the oil production (since 1971) the city took a strong economic boom as a supply port for exploration, production, transport and marketing of the oil (by the company Statoil ASA). The most important branches of industry are the petrochemical industry (petroleum refinery in Sola near Stavanger), shipyards (construction of production platforms), food (especially canned fish) and the printing industry. Stavanger has been connected to Oslo by the Sørlandsbahn since 1944. The international airport is in the municipality of Sola.
The Romanesque cathedral, a three-aisled pillar basilica (begun around 1125), received a Gothic choir and three towers, a baroque pulpit (1658) after the fire of 1272. The royal court later became a bishopric (Gothic chapel from the 13th century) and later converted into a school (1758 and 1853).
From the 10th century Stavanger was a regional trading center and became a bishopric in 1125. After its relocation (1684) to Kristiansand, which also took on the commercial functions, Stavanger lost its importance. It was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that Stavanger experienced a new boom thanks to the shipping and canning industry. In 2008 Stavanger was European Capital of Culture together with Liverpool.
Norwegian language, generic term for the two national languages of Norway, which have been officially equal since 1885, Bokmål (formerly Riksmål) and Nynorsk (formerly Landsmål).
Both languages, like Danish and Swedish, belong to the North Germanic language group, but differ from one another in that Bokmål has strong East Nordic features, while Nynorsk did not change until the 19th century BC. a. Developed from younger dialect levels of the West Norse (Old Norse language) originally spoken in Norway.
Already at the end of the old Norwegian language period (around 1050-1350) the plague of 1349/50 and its consequences – the destruction of around half of the population, heavy losses, especially among the clergy, whereby the school system they supervised came to a standstill, general impoverishment – decisive prerequisites for the further political, cultural and linguistic development of the country given. Central Norwegian (1350 to around 1525), as a linguistic norm not yet firmly established, was subject to foreign language influence from Low German (Hanse), Swedish (Union 1319; Birgittenorden) and Danish, which has been the administrative language of both empires since the Kalmar Union of 1397 became increasingly important. The process of gradual displacement of Norwegian continued, among other things. on with the Danish translation of the Bible (1550) and Reformation literature, the translation of Norwegian laws into Danish (1604), the introduction of Danish as the “mother tongue” in school lessons (1739) and the preferred appointment of Danes to important ecclesiastical, legal and administrative positions. By the end of the 18th century, the Norwegian language as the written and colloquial language of the educated had completely disappeared, and it was replaced by a more or less pure Danish, which, however, was spoken with the Norwegian sound. legal and administrative positions with Danes. By the end of the 18th century, the Norwegian language as the written and colloquial language of the educated had completely disappeared, and it was replaced by a more or less pure Danish, which, however, was spoken with the Norwegian sound. legal and administrative positions with Danes. By the end of the 18th century, the Norwegian language as the written and colloquial language of the educated had completely disappeared, and it was replaced by a more or less pure Danish, which, however, was spoken with the Norwegian sound.
The turn to bilingualism and with it the beginning of the history of the modern Norwegian language took place in the period of national romanticism after the end of the union with Denmark (1814). Although Norway had to enter a union again (with Sweden until 1905), national independence and self-determination were made part of the program. The turn to the vernacular (especially the dialects) and to folk poetry were, as in all of European Romanticism, important means of reflection and renewal. One line aimed at renewal by “Norwegianization” of the Danish spoken in Norway (e.g. by restoring the voiceless explosives p, t, k, lenized in Danish: Danish gribe, bryde, pige, Norwegian gripe, bryte, pike; replacement of the Plural ending -e through -er). The decisive impulses for this came from v. a. from H. A. Wergeland, P. Asbjørnsen, J. I. Moe and v. a. Knud Knudsen (* 1812, † 1895). This form of the Norwegian language called Riksmål waspicked upby poets of the 19th century such as H. Ibsen, B. Bjørnson, A. L. Kielland and J. Lie. On the other hand, I. Aasen in particular stepped updecided in favor of a renewal of the Norwegian language on the basis of ancient (still rich in forms) dialects. His works, a grammar and a dictionary, published around the middle of the 19th century, form important foundations for the Landsmål, which he wanted to replace the Riksmål as the »Norsk Folkesprog«; A. O. Vinje and A. Garborg especially took care of it. The state recognition as a second written language took place in 1885. Both directions (since 1929 called Bokmål and Nynorsk) through linguistic and orthographic reforms (1907, 1917, 1938) to unite into a common national language (Samnorsk) failed. A commission set up by Parliament in 1951 with equal representation (Norsk språknemnd) had the task of helping to promote and advise further developments.
After linguistic political turbulence, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, which under the influence of new linguistic and sociological models, v. a. In connection with the attempt to politically instrumentalize Nynorsk against the Bokmål as the supposed language of the “establishment”, the commission was dissolved and replaced by the Norwegian Language Council (Norsk språkråd). The tasks of this body include: Standardization work with the aim of approximating both forms of language and defending against anglicisms.