Spain Archaeology

The Superior Council of Excavations and Antiquities (which published 136 Memories of Excavations between 1916 and 1936) was replaced in 1939 by the General Commissariat of Archaeological Excavations, which has since published two files of Acta Arqueológica Hispana, fifteen Informes y memories. Other scientific institutes in Madrid, Barcelona, ​​Valencia, Badajoz, Asturias, Navarre, the Basque provinces, etc., are grouped in the Higher Council for Scientific Research and for the most part in the “Diego Velázquez” Institute of Art and Archeology. For Spain 2012, please check oxfordastronomy.com.

For the Paleolithic period the excavation of the Parpalló cave, published and studied by L. Pericot, occupies an important place. There were also findings in the caves of La Cocina, Valenza, particularly interesting for the Mesolithic, published by Pericot; La Cova Negra by Bellús in Sátiva was published by D. Jordá. J. Uria studied the Nordic Asturian group of paintings from El Cuetu by Lledías; according to Pericot, the oriental ones of the Cogul area and the cave of La Cocina show how this oriental rock art, derived from the Spanish-French one, became independent in the Magdalenian, when the natives resumed the artistic heritage of the Aurignacians and Solutreans of Parpalló, creating an art that is schematized and decays at the beginning of the Neolithic. The findings of dolmen of Alto Ampurdán, Torreut, Gerona, Monforte del Cid, Valenza and Ereta del Pedregal in Navarre.

From the Bronze Age belongs a treasure found by chance in Caldas de Reyes, in the province of Pontevedra, consisting of 28 kg. of gold pieces, of which only half could be saved; includes vases, necklaces, bracelets, a small jar and a comb. Among the Halstatt finds we should mention the Catalan necropolis of El Molar (published by Spain Vilaseca), the excavations of B. Taracena and Vásquez de Parga in the stations of Arguedas and Cortes in Navarre, and the necropolis of Agullana in Gerona, studied by Payol. Maluquer and Tomás. Few are the findings of the Punic and Greek colonization.

For the Iberian Iron Age, of which many unpublished inscriptions were published by Gómez Moreno, excavations continued both in Liria (Valence), directed by I. Ballester, rich in painted and inscribed pottery, and in the Iberian necropolis of Oya de Santa Ana, of Albacete, in the inhabited area of ​​La Cregüeta in Gerona, in the Cabezo del Tío Pío, in Archena, in the Castellón of Alcocer, in Teruel and in the Turò di Rovira in Barcelona, ​​helping to clarify the discussed chronological problem of Iberian ceramics. For the second Celtic Iron Age, excavations have been made with findings of circular houses in the late castro of Coaña in Asturias (published by A. García y Bellido); in Monte Bernorio (from the post-Halstatt period), in Palencia; to Echauri and Javier in Navarre; at Yecla in Burgos.

During the Roman period the excavations of Ampurias continued with intensity under the direction of M. Almagro; large remains of Caesar’s walls have been discovered, a small extra-muros amphitheater and a sumptuous imperial residence. In Almenara di Adaja, in Valladolid, a rich Roman villa was partly discovered, and Serra Rafols has published the excavation of the villa of Fortunatus di Fraga. In Ontur, Albacete, and in burials of children in a Roman necropolis, there have been very interesting objects, such as four ivory dolls and one of amber. B. Taracena and Vázquez de Parga have completely excavated a villa in Liédena, and published the Roman remains of this province of Navarre, as well as the excavation of the important palace of Clunia.

Spain Archaeology