According to topschoolsintheusa, Turkmenistan is characterized by almost complete literacy of the population. Both scientific research and the educational system in Turkmenistan are headed by the Academy of Sciences, founded in 1951. It controls a number of scientific institutes, including the world-famous Desert Institute. The reduction in state funding and the outflow of the Russian-speaking population affected the quality of scientific research and the level of training of specialists.
Ashgabat is home to the Turkmen State University. Teaching in higher education is conducted in Turkmen and Russian; in the system of primary and secondary education there are classes with teaching in the Kazakh, Russian and Uzbek languages. Teaching in general education schools is conducted in the Turkmen language. The number of classes where children of other nationalities (Russians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs) can study is steadily decreasing. As a result of the reform of higher education, carried out in con. In the 1990s, the period of study of students in higher educational institutions was reduced to 4 years, and two of them were in practice.
The diversity of the ethnogenesis of the Turkmen people, formed from the most ancient Iranian-speaking and alien Turkic-speaking tribes, determined the nature of the culture of the Turkmens. There are two directions in it: Turkic and Iranian.
Of the epic genres of folk art, the most developed artistically is the dastan. Turkmen dastans are divided into heroic and romantic. The heroic epos has exclusively Turkic (Oghuz) themes. Romantic dastans are the author’s processing of famous plots of oriental literature. Literature and folklore of Turkmenistan up to the 20th century. spread mainly by word of mouth. Many well-known poets and philosophers, representatives of the early Seljuk poetry in Asia Minor, who wrote in Persian (Chelebi Khusameddin), came from the Turkmen environment. And later, Turkmens of origin wrote in Farsi – Hilali Chagatai (16th century), Bayramkhan Khanhannan (who also wrote in Turkic), and others. 16th century Turkmen literature was dominated by didactic poetry, reflecting Islamic-Sufi dogma.
From the 2nd floor. 18th century polemical poems appeared – an epistolary form – correspondence of poets on various topics (for example, correspondence between the poets Makhtumkuli and Durdy-shakhir, 18th century). Makhtumkuli was the first in the Turkmen literature to use the form “goshgy” – a quatrain characteristic of the folklore of all Turkic-speaking peoples.
Of the artistic crafts, ceramics decorated with ornaments (before the 8th century), glazed (from the 8th century), one-color (10th to 12th centuries), and spotted or decorated with engraving or polychrome painting (from the 12th century) became widespread. The ornamentation of stamped ceramics and artistic metal products is close to Iranian.
During the late Middle Ages, the ancient art of carpet weaving was highly developed among the Turkmen tribes. Patterns on carpets 18 – early. 20th century (Teke, Salor, Yomud, Ersar, etc.) are traditional compositions worked out for centuries with pronounced tribal characteristics. Many elements of carpet patterns date back to ancient times. The Turkmen carpet as a whole is distinguished by a clear geometric pattern and a dominant red-brown deep color tone.
The artistic originality of the works of Turkmen jewelers is the combination of a mass of silver with softly glowing carnelian grains, as well as the completion of the main composition of the product with a “fringe” or a cascade of rustling and ringing pendants, bells, and coins.