Rome, Italy


According to abbreviationfinder, Rome is the capital of Italy, on the lower Tiber, with (2019) 2.85 million residents.

The Vatican city. Rome, the “Eternal City”, is the cultural center of Italy with universities, scientific institutes and famous museums. Every year Rome receives more than 7 million visitors (tourists, scientists, pilgrims, business people, etc.).

Rome arose around 650 BC. From isolated settlements, the foundation by Romulus is legendary. The seven hills were made from 378 BC. Fortified by the Servian wall. In ancient times, among other things, the Roman Forum (the ancient Roman marketplace), the Colosseum (a huge amphitheater), the Pantheon, the Capitol and Castel Sant’Angelo (originally the mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian ) were built. Numerous basilicas and baptisteries have been preserved from the time of earlyChristianity. The cityscape is also shaped by many buildings from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, especially St. Modern facilities such as the Olympic site (1960) are also impressive.

History: The history of ancient Rome is inseparable from the history of the Roman Empire (Roman history). After the capital was moved to Constantinople in 330 and the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Rome lost its importance (up to the 16th century). In the 5th century it was used by the Visigoths and Vandals looted and partially destroyed, but in the 8th century by the Pippinsche donation to the center of the Papal States levied. After the destruction of the Lateran Palace (1308), the permanent residence of the Popes returning to Rome from exile in Avignon (1309–76) was moved to the Vatican. 800–1452 the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were crowned in Rome. Rome has been the capital of Italy since 1871.


The ancient city, whose foundation the later Roman tradition in the 8th century BC. (Conventional founding date: April 21, 753 BC), is probably in the 7th century BC. BC under Etruscan rule as Roma (Etruscan name) emerged from older individual settlements (Roman history). After the occupation and devastation by the Celts (“Gauls”) under Brennus (probably 387/386 BC, according to another tradition 390 BC) the city was rebuilt and walled (Servian wall). Augustus divided Rome, which had grown rapidly as the capital of the Roman Empire (750,000 to 1.5 million residents) into 14 regions. Under Nero the city burned down almost completely in AD 64. Aurelian had it walled again from 272 (Aurelian wall). After Constantinople was elevated to the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 and the residence of the Western Roman emperors moved to Milan and Ravenna, Rome lost its political importance. It was conquered and plundered several times (410 Visigoths under Alaric, 455 Vandals under Geiseric, 546 Ostrogoths under Totila).

In the early Middle Ages, the papacy rose to be the new power of order in Rome, although it was often unable to protect it from external threats (from 739 threat from the Lombards, 846 plundering by the Saracens, 1084 by the Normans). With the Pippin donation in 754/756 the Pope became secular ruler of the Papal States with Rome as the capital. Their fate was shaped up to modern times by the curia, by the Roman noble families (Tusculans, Crescentians, Orsini, Colonna, Frangipani, Savelli), who were involved in frequent disputes, and from 800 (coronation of Charlemagne) from the western empire. The rise in power of the papacy, the growing importance of the city as a place of pilgrimage (Saint Peter and Saint Paul) and as a diplomatic center of the West founded the rise of the city. Attempts to liberate the city from papal rule (Arnold von Brescia, 1145; C. di Rienzo, 1347) failed. The development of the city suffered a setback due to the Avignon exile of the Popes (1309–76) and the plague epidemic of 1348/50 (population decreased to less than 20,000 residents). With the pontificate of Martin V (1417–31) the period of the Renaissance papacy began, which gave Rome the expansion of papal administration, v. a. but brought a tremendous cultural boost. The growing financial power (among other things through the fee policy of the Curia) was only briefly interrupted in 1527 by the looting by marauding troops of Emperor Charles V(Sacco di Roma). Rome’s claims partly led to economic stagnation in the rest of the Papal States, partly even to regional impoverishment. The number of residents rose from 1600 to 1800 by 50,000 (to 150,000).

After the Napoleonic period (briefly Roman republic in 1798, French occupied in 1808 and annexed in 1809) Pope Pius VII returned from captivity in 1814 (from 1809). Pius IX granted a constitution in March 1848, but had to flee in November and returned in 1850 with the help of French troops, which had already dissolved the national revolutionary Roman Republic of G. Mazzini in mid-1849 after heavy fighting against Italian free troops (among others led by G. Garibaldi). The pre-constitutional order was restored. Only on September 20, 1870, troops from the emerging Italian nation-state could move into Rome. The Pope stayed until 1929 (Lateran Pacts) as a self-declared “prisoner” in the Vatican. As the capital of the Kingdom of Italy (since 1871), Rome grew rapidly. Under B. Mussolini it was greatly expanded (only now exceeded the boundaries of ancient Rome). After his fall, Rome was declared an “open city” and occupied by German troops on September 10, 1943. On June 4, 1944, Rome was surrendered to the Allies without a fight. It has been the capital of the Republic of Italy since June 2, 1946. The EEC and EURATOM were founded in Rome on March 25, 1957 with the Treaty of Rome; In 1960 the XVII. Olympic Games held, 1962–65, the city was the site of the Second Vatican Council.

Rome, Italy