According to abbreviationfinder, Rijeka is a port city on the Adriatic Sea, Croatia, administrative seat of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar district, (2011) 128 400 residents.
Rijeka extends on a narrow coastal strip (widened in places by artificial seafills) on the inner (northeast) coast of the Kvarner (Gulf of Rijeka) and (to the north) on the foothills of the Gorski Kotar (southwestern part of the Croatian Karst); Cultural, commercial and industrial center with the seat of a Catholic archbishop, university (founded in 1973), natural science museum, computer museum, maritime and history museum, museum of modern and contemporary art, theater. In addition to shipbuilding and its supply industry (including diesel engine construction), oil refinery with petrochemical industry, as well as paper, tobacco and food industries. Largest port in Croatia, formerly also Yugoslavia and the Hungarian half of the Habsburg monarchy; Commercial, fishing, ferry and naval ports; Omišalj on the island of Krk as part of the port complex of Rijeka is the starting point of an oil pipeline to Sisak (refinery); Airport on the island of Krk (with a bridge to the mainland). Rijeka is a railway junction and starting point for coastal shipping to the south of the eastern Adriatic coast.
The old gate (triumphal arch of the 3rd century) dates from Roman times, and the Trsat fort also goes back to a Roman complex; In the Middle Ages, the Frankopani built a fortress here, which was renovated in the 17th and 19th centuries. The cathedral (originally 13th century) with a bell tower from 1377 is a mighty baroque rotunda. The St. Vitus Church (Sveti Vid) from the 17th century has baroque altars. The city clock has been located on the superstructure of the baroque city tower (15th century; rebuilt in the 18th century) since the 17th century.
The Municipium Tarsatica was located on the site of today’s Rijeka during the Roman Empire . After the Avars and Slavs settled in the 6th and 7th centuries, it was in different hands (Croatia, Franconian Empire, Bishops of Pula, Lords of Duino, Frankopani). Rijeka, first mentioned in the 13th century, mostly called Fiume in the Middle Ages, was given to Emperor Friedrich III in 1466 by the Lords of Walsee . sold. In 1508 the Venetians devastated the rising rival. In 1530, the extensive self-government of the early modern period was replaced by a statute by Ferdinand I. confirmed. The disputes between Venice and the Uskoks affected the city’s trade, which was only given new impetus through the creation of a free port (1717). In 1779 Rijeka was annexed to the Kingdom of Hungary as “Corpus Separatum” (autonomous area). After 1809 one of the French Illyrian provinces, it became part of Austria in 1814 and was added to the Habsburg Kingdom of Illyria in 1816, to the Crown Land of Croatia-Slavonia in 1849 and to Hungary in 1868. In September 1919, an Italian free group under G. D’Annunzio occupied Rijeka. In the Italo -Yugoslav Treaty of Rapallo (1920; Rapallo Treaty) the city became a free state, in the Italo-Yugoslav Agreement of Rome (1924) Italian territory. In the Peace of Paris (1947) Italy had to cede the city to Yugoslavia.
Croatia Modern and present arts
Late 19th century and BC a. In the 20th century, artists took up suggestions from all important international currents:
In architecture, a. the architect of German origin Hermann Bollé (* 1845, † 1926), who designed the Museum of Arts and Crafts in Zagreb (1888-92), Viktor Kovačič (* 1874, † 1924), pupil of O. Wagner , who in 1906 designed the » Club of Croatian Architects «(stock exchange in Zagreb, 1923-27, completed by Hugo Ehrlich, * 1879, † 1936), Drago Ibler (* 1894, † 1964) and the group» Zemlja «(» Earth «; 1925–35). Elements of functionalism determine the stadium in Split (1979) by Boris Magaš (* 1930, † 2013); Branko Silađin (* 1936) resorted to deconstructivist conceptsin his design for the Croatian pavilion at the EXPO 2000 in Hanover.
As a result of the Serbian-Croatian War of 1991/92, important art monuments (including in Dubrovnik, Split, Vukovar) were destroyed, some of which were rebuilt with the support of UNESCO.
The visual arts developed in a similar way to architecture. Since the end of the 19th century, international currents have dealt with Oton Iveković (* 1869, † 1939), Miroslav Kraljević (* 1885, † 1913), Josip Račić (1885, † 1909), Vladimir Becić (* 1886, † 1954) and K. Hegedušić , in the sculpture Ivan Rendić (* 1849, † 1932), Robert Frangeš-Mihanović (* 1872, † 1940), Toma Rosandić (* 1878, † 1958), I. Meštrović , A. Augustinčić and V. Bakic .
European and American influences have been at work since the 1950s, e. B. on the groups »EXAT 51« (including Aleksandar Srnec, * 1924, † 2010; Ivan Picelj, * 1924; Vladimir Kristl, * 1923, † 2004, who emigrated to Germany in 1962; Vjenceslav Richter, * 1917, † 2002) and »Gorgona« (including Dimitrije Bašičević, pseudonym Mangelos; * 1921, † 1987; Julije Knifer, * 1924, † 2005; Ivan Kožarik, * 1921), as well as on, among others. Zoran Mušić (* 1909; † 2005; from 1952 in Paris), Oton Gliha (* 1914, † 1999) and D. Džamonja .
Photography, video and performance art gained importance in the post-avant-garde since the 1960s. The important representatives include: Braco Dimitrijević (* 1948), Dalibor Martinis (* 1947), Sanja Iveković (* 1949) and the experimental filmmaker Mladen Stilinović (* 1947), who lives in Paris and New York. Serigraphy also brought new impulses (e.g. Miroslav Šutej, * 1936, † 2005).
Since 1990 the retro-avant-garde has been appropriating tendencies of international art, which it combines with private, global and national aspects in an ironic, playful and critical way. Very differentiated are v. a. In photography and media art, socio-political conflicts in a society of changed values are dissected (including Slaven Tolj, * 1964; Zlatan Vrkljan, * 1955; Zeljko Kipke, * 1953; Tanja Dabo, * 1970) and the group »Weekend Art« (including with Tomislav Gotovac, * 1937, † 2010).