State structure and political system of Finland
The components of the Finnish welfare state model, like those of its Scandinavian neighbors, are a quality free education system, a public health care system and social protection in case of illness or unemployment, which provide a highly skilled and feeling secure workforce. An important role in this regard is played by the Central Organization of Trade Unions of Finland (more than 1 million members). Entrepreneurs also have a coherent system of allied organizations.
The end of the Cold War and the end of the division of Europe had a direct impact on the country’s foreign policy. In September 1990, the Finnish government declared that the provisions of the Paris Peace Treaty (1947), which limited Finland’s sovereignty, had lost their meaning.
The development of integration in Europe required Finland to be more active in foreign policy. When Sweden applied for EU membership in the summer of 1991, this prompted Helsinki to take a similar step (March 1992). In a referendum (October 1994), 57% of the Finns who took part in the vote supported the country’s accession to the EU, and in November 1994, the parliament, with 152 votes in favor and 45 against, confirmed the country’s accession to the EU from January 1995.
Integration policy within the EU has become a central element of the entire international political course of the country. Resolutely rejecting the policy of “Finlandization” and non-participation in the alliances of the West, the Finnish establishment has taken a line to occupy a worthy place in the EU. To this end, the Finnish authorities put forward a proposal for a “northern dimension” of EU policy, which was voiced in the speech of Finnish Prime Minister P. Lipponen in Rovaniemi in September 1997. As a result of the efforts of the EU Helsinki, a program was adopted for 2000-03 with the aim of federation into the world economy across the northeastern borders through cross-border cooperation and preparation of the Baltic States for admission to the EU.
The armed forces (called the Finnish Defense Forces – OSF) consist of the Ground Forces, the Air Force and the Navy. The Supreme Commander is the President; direct leadership is carried out by the commander of the OSF through the General Staff (GSh). Recruitment is carried out on the basis of the law on military service. Male persons who have reached the age of 17 are called. The annual draft contingent is 31 thousand people, of which 500 are women, 35 thousand pass military training every year. The term of active military service is 6-12 months.
Military spending (2000) – 9.8 billion fin. marks, or 1.7% of GDP. The total number of the Armed Forces is 32 thousand people, trained mobilization reserves – 485 thousand people.
OSF participate in peacekeeping operations, especially the Brigade of permanent combat readiness (Bjørneborgskaya), stationed in the city of Säkülä.
Finland has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR when the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR recognized its independence on December 18 (31), 1917). Finland recognized the Russian Federation as the legal successor of the USSR on December 30, 1991, in January 1992 the Treaty on the Basics of Relations was concluded, which was automatically extended in 2001 until 2007. Today, more than 80 interstate and intergovernmental documents are in force between the Russian Federation and Finland.
President of the Russian Federation B. Yeltsin was in Finland on an official visit in 1992, Presidents M. Ahtisaari and T. Halonen – in Moscow in May 1994 and June 2000, respectively. In September 2001, an official visit to Helsinki by President V.V. Putin, a symbolic event, a sign of final reconciliation between the countries was the laying of a wreath by the president at the grave of Marshal G. Mannerheim.
The heads of government of Finland and the Russian Federation meet at least 2 times a year. Regular contacts are maintained between the heads of ministries and departments. Inter-parliamentary ties are active. A significant role is played by cooperation in neighboring regions. The cultural ties along the line of the Finno-Ugric peoples are very diverse.
Science and culture in Finland
As early as 1968, a unified 9-year (basic) school was introduced. According to searchforpublicschools, complete secondary education is provided by the senior classes of the lyceum, which are called gymnasiums. Higher education is considered one of the most developed in Europe. There are 20 universities offering bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. There is St. 30 institutes where you can get professional education and relevant qualifications in 2-4 years. For the education of each student, the state annually allocates approx. 7.5 thousand euros.
Finland leads in the field of interaction between university and industrial research, as well as in the proportion of the population pursuing higher education. Scientific research is largely concentrated in the areas of economic specialization of the country, especially in the research departments of industrial firms. In 2002, the state allocated 4.5% of the budget for R&D, or 3.2% of GDP, which is a very high figure in the world. Approx. 15 thousand scientific and engineering workers (less than 1% of the economically active population). The foundations of state policy in the field of science are developed by the Scientific Council together with the Academy of Finland, which act as advisory bodies to the government.
Science and culture, especially fine arts, since the 19th century. were in close contact with the largest European schools and leading areas. This trend has intensified recently, although traditional features and deep folk roots (the epic and national motifs of the Kalevala) remain to this day. In addition, Finnish culture was enriched by a bilingual tradition, connections with its Slavic neighbors. Among modern figures, the names of V. Linn, V. Meri, H. Salam, Tito T. Muka, K. Kilman, A. Kleve K. Andersson, K. Donner (writers), J. Sievenen, E. Tirronen, K. Kaivanto (artists), K. Tapper, L. Pullinen (sculptors), M. Talvela (singer). Especially many bright talents were given to the world by the country in the field of design and architecture (A. Aalto, V. Aaltonen, Timo and Tuomo Suomalainen).