According to mathgeneral.com, the People’s Republic of China was founded on October 1, 1949 and is a communist state in East Asia. With around 1.4 billion inhabitants, the country is the most populous in the world and in terms of total area it ranks third. Economically and technologically, China has become a world power in recent years. The different landscapes and climatic zones shape the Asian country and its diversity. The People’s Republic of China borders on 14 neighboring countries and, together with Russia, has most of the neighboring countries. With a total length of 22,133 kilometers, China has the longest land border in the world. China is a multi-ethnic country and even the Han, the largest population group with over 90%, is inherently very heterogeneous. A total of 55 ethnic groups are recognized as minorities, just as diverse and different are the various languages and dialects that can be found in the Chinese national territory. China is the country in the middle and is considered to be one of the oldest advanced cultures on earth. More than 30 Chinese structures are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These include the Great Wall of China, the Qin Shihuangdis mausoleum with more than 8,000 life-size figures of the Terracotta Army and the Imperial Palace in Beijing. A visa is required when entering China. the Qin Shihuangdis mausoleum with more than 8000 life-size figures of the Terracotta Army and the Imperial Palace in Beijing. A visa is required when entering China. the Qin Shihuangdis mausoleum with more than 8000 life-size figures of the Terracotta Army and the Imperial Palace in Beijing. A visa is required when entering China.
Beijing and Great Wall
Beijing, or Beijing, is the capital of the People’s Republic of China. With 21.5 million inhabitants, the city is one of the largest in the world and its area is larger than the area of Schleswig-Holstein. Beijing is the political center of China and due to its long history, the city is an important cultural heritage. This includes the Forbidden City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987, the traditional residential quarters with hutongs, Tian’anmen Square (Square at the Gate of Heavenly Peace), the new and old Summer Palace and various temples, such as B. the Lama Temple, the Temple of Heaven and the Temple of Confucius. A special cultural highlight is a visit to a performance in the Peking Opera. Here, many arts and styles are usually mixed and the drama is based on historical or mythical material.
In the Forbidden City is the walled imperial palace. Since the historic old town was previously not accessible to the common people, it was enclosed with a wall. It was built in the image of the cosmos and consisted of three rectangular quarters (imperial, inner and outer city). The place served as a residence for 24 Chinese emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties and their families. Today the Beijing Palace Museum is housed there. In the Inner City, in addition to the Forbidden City, there were government buildings, palaces, temples, gardens and parks. Outside the imperial city and its approx. 25 km long wall were many markets and temples, as well as residential areas.
Tian’anmen Square is the largest square in the world. Over a million people can gather on it and it was built as the center of the city after the communists took over. On the west side of the square is the Great Hall of the People, where the Chinese National Assembly is housed. Opposite it is a museum dedicated to Chinese history and revolution. In the middle of the square there is a monument to the people’s heroes and the tomb of Mao Zedong.
In the northwestern suburbs (Shisan ling) are the Ming tombs of the emperors from the Ming dynasty. These can be reached via an avenue characterized by marble lions, elephants, camels and horses. To the northwest of it is part of the Great Wall of China. This monumental structure stretches over 8,850 km through China. With the construction of the Great Wall of China in the 5th century BC. And worked on it until the 16th century. If one were to build a wall with a height of 5 m and a depth of 1 m from the remaining parts, it would be longer than the circumference of the earth. The most famous section of the wall can be found near Badaling, approx. 70km northwest of Beijing. There are watchtowers from the Ming period at regular intervals and the wall is about 6 m wide at this point.
Nowhere in China can you find more variety of gastronomic delicacies than in Beijing. Here you can not only try your way through the various regional cuisines of China and Asia, but also find dishes from all over the world.
Xi’an was the first capital of the Chinese Empire under the Qin Dynasty and over the course of the 1120 years it was the capital of the imperial family, mostly under the name Chang’an. The city only became world famous in 1974 when archaeological excavations found 8,000 life-size terracotta soldiers. These were placed in battle positions in the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. The Terracotta Army is now one of the most visited tourist attractions in the country. During the 36 years commenced in 246bv. Chr., Ongoing work on the tomb, 700,000 workers were employed at the same time to build it.
The city walls of Xi’an are 13.6 km long and are considered to be the best preserved city walls in the country. The drawbridges of the four gates were lowered in the morning by a signal from the bell tower and raised again in the evening by a signal from the drum tower. Both towers are also worth a visit.
Another attraction is the large wild goose pagoda. This consists of seven floors, which can be climbed through a wooden staircase inside. On a clear day you have a spectacular view of the city from above. The name goes back to a legend, since in a Buddhist monastery, in which the meat had run out, a monk called to Buddha that they were missing the meat. At that moment a dead goose fell from the sky from a flock of passing wild geese. Believing that Buddha had sacrificed himself to them, the monks built this pagoda in honor of the goose. Water features that are worth seeing light up here at night.
In the Muslim quarter, the 1250-year-old mosque in Xi’an is a particular highlight, as it has been adapted to the Chinese architecture. The city is therefore more than just a starting point to look at the Terracotta Army and should be planned on a trip to China.
The well-known city is located in the province of Henan and was the capital of the Chinese Empire during 70 imperial reigns, as these came from 9 different dynasties, the city is nicknamed the “capital of 9 dynasties”. In addition to the cultural sites, the landscape around Luoyang is also worth seeing. The White Cloud Mountain, the Funiu Mountain, the Long Yu Wan National Forest Park, the Ji Guan Limestone Cave and the Xiaolangdi area on the Yellow River are just some of the highlights in the outskirts of the city.
A special celebration takes place annually in April, the Peony Festival attracts tourists from all over the world with its splendor of flowers.
Luoyang was not only Laotse’s place of work, Confucius is said to have studied here as well. One of the most popular sights is about 70 km southeast of Luoyang, the well-known Shaolin Monastery. It is also known as “Temple No. 1 under Heaven”. It is known for its martial arts, Shaolin Kung Fu, as well as for Tai Chi and Qigong. An Indian monk is said to have laid the foundations of Zen Buddhism here around 1,500 years ago.
The main attraction, however, is the Longmen Grotto, also known as the Dragon Gate Grotto. The UNESCO World Heritage Site is located on the Yi River, 13 km south of the ancient capital Luoyang. There you will find impressive stone sculptures which are among the greatest treasures of the rock sculptors in China. Over 100,000 Buddha statues can be found in 2,345 niches. The largest statue is the 17.14 meter high Buddha Vairocana, the smallest micro-engraved Buddha figure is only 2 centimeters high.
An important sight is the Temple of the White Horse, which is considered the oldest Buddhist temple in the world.
The grave museum is certainly a unique attraction in the world. The ancient graves of emperors, nobles and writers have been rebuilt and you can marvel at their treasures and grave goods. A unique insight into the burial culture of China.
In the Guanlin Monastery, also a sight of the city, you can find over 1000 old pine and cypress trees. Also, don’t miss the Luoyang water banquet Shuixi and Tangmian Jiao (steamed dumplings) gastronomic delights.
Shanghai is one of the largest cities and one of the most important industrial cities in the world. The city is an important traffic junction and a center for culture and education with numerous universities, museums and theaters. The name Shanghai means something like “city over the sea” because it is located in the mouth of the Yangtze River on the Huangpu River. The cityscape of Shanghai is mainly characterized by constantly new skyscrapers and is considered the most modern city in China. The seven-story Long Hua Pagoda from the Song Dynasty and the Long Hua Monastery with the 3m high Buddha statue are among the few historical attractions in Shanghai. You should pay a visit to the Yu Garden, one of the most famous gardens in China. From the federal government, a promenade on the banks of the Huangpu River offers a spectacular view of the skyline of the Pudong district. The view from one of these skyscrapers such as the Jinmao Tower is fantastic and at night the city turns into a sea of lights and comes to life. The nightlife of Shanghai with its many rooftop bars should not be missed and a shopping tour is also a real experience.
On a day trip to the water village of Wuzhen on the Great Imperial Canal, you will get to know the original China and can visit various traditional manufactories.
National parks and impressive landscapes
The most beautiful mountains are probably the Huangshan Mountains (Yellow Mountains), which got its name in honor of the Yellow Emperor. The 72 differently shaped peaks of the mountains protrude from the dense sea of clouds after rainfall. Here you actually walk above the clouds, which shine in all colors at sunset.
The movie Avatar was inspired by the scenery in Wulingyuan Park in Hunan Province. Here you can also find the famous Hallelujah rocks. The approximately 3,000 of the sandstone pillars, which are up to 200 meters high, are located in the middle of the deep rainforest. The observation deck in Huangshizhai (Village of the Yellow Lion) offers a spectacular view into the depths. In the city of Zhangjiajie, there is another impressive mountain, the Tian’men Shan, the gateway to heaven. Wulingyuan is a fascinating national park with a lot to discover.
The Shunan Zhuhai National Park in southern China is a veritable sea of bamboo. The hiking trails through the bamboo forest offer great views, waterfalls, quiet brooks and temples that you can visit. Bird lovers will also find something among the various ancient types of bamboo.
The picturesque landscapes along the Li Jiang River are also impressive. During a cruise on the river you can marvel at the fantastic rock formations of the karst landscape.
Jiuzhaigou National Park is located in the Chinese province of Sichuan and has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1992. The landscape is characterized by unique mountain formations, lakes and fantastic waterfalls. The giant panda and the small panda, as well as other rare mammals and birds, can also be observed here.
For long distances, the airplane is indispensable in China, because the long distances should not be underestimated. There are regular flight connections and bus connections between the cities are also good, but buses are often overcrowded. There is also an offer of expensive luxury buses. About 80% of the cities and villages are connected to the road network. When traveling by rental car, it should be borne in mind that the roads are not always in good condition and the distances are easily underestimated. For example, it is 1461km from Beijing to Shanghai and the traffic in large cities is often very chaotic. Rental car trips are often problematic as they can only be booked with a chauffeur and many car rental companies withhold passports. Driving is generally only permitted with a special permit. Therefore, the use of public transport is recommended for individual travelers. Those who join an organized small group trip can choose from a wide range and set personal priorities. It is possible to discover a lot of China as a travel destination in a short time.