According to abbreviationfinder, Naples is the largest city in southern Italy, on the Gulf of Naples, reaching to the north and west foot of Vesuvius, surrounded by the Phlegraean Fields, 15 m above sea level, (2019) 959 200 residents.
Administrative headquarters of the Campania region and the Città metropolitana Naples; catholic archbishop’s seat; several universities, including the Università degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II (founded in 1224), one of the oldest and largest Italian universities; biological research station, institute for philosophical studies, historical institute, volcanological institute and earthquake observatory, art academy, music college, observatory; several museums, including historical, porcelain and city history museum, archaeological museum (with the Farnese collections), picture gallery, museum of contemporary art, libraries, state archive; important theater, film festival.
Together with its environs, Naples forms the economic focus of southern Italy, with oil refineries, shipyards, aircraft technology, textile and clothing, leather, chemical and food industries. In addition, there are many small businesses that market the products of the surrounding area (fruit, wine, vegetables). Naples is one of the most important trading ports in the country. The city’s location at the intersection of important transport routes (airport, highways, railways) in a scenic area with many natural and cultural-historical sights (Pompeii, Pozzuoli), the nearby islands in the Gulf (including Capri) and the seaside resorts on the coast led to brisk tourism early on. On the other hand, there are pollution and the problems of the Mezzogiorno, among others. Poverty, unemployment, camorra, corruption, clearly pronounced. A constant problem for Naples and the Campania region is public garbage disposal due to insufficient landfill capacity and illegal garbage deals.
That in the 5th century BC The road network laid out in BC is still influential today. Due to the eventful history of Naples, no medieval city center has emerged. The old town, which often rises like a staircase towards the north and west, with densely populated quarters of old buildings, stretches between the main train station in the east and Monte Calvario in the west; to the south towards the harbor it was redesigned after 1884 (cholera epidemic); this is how the straight »Rettifilo« (Corso Umberto I) was created, which became the traffic axis and shopping street between Piazza Garibaldi and Piazza G. Bovio. After the destruction in World War II, v. a. the port district rebuilt. A. Siza Vieira; both opened in 2005). Older residential areas are in the north, villas and newer residential areas of the upper level are on heights in the west. A commercial and industrial sector connects to the east beyond the main train station; Working-class district in the northeast.
Naples’ sacred buildings come mainly from the early Christian period, from the Gothic and especially from the Baroque. The earliest Christian evidence is the catacombs of San Gennaro extra moenia (since the 2nd century; with fresco fragments), furthermore the small basilica Santa Restituta connected to the cathedral San Gennaro (largely changed during the construction of the cathedral; with apse mosaic, 1322, and two relief panels, 12th century)./13th century) and the baptistery of San Giovanni in Fonte behind it (5th century, partly original mosaic decoration). Under the rule of the Anjou, the Gothic style prevailed: San Lorenzo Maggiore (founded around 1270, completed around 1330; baroque facade, 1743; with tomb of Catherine of Austria, by Tino di Camaino, after 1323), San Domenico Maggiore (originally 13th / 14th century, rebuilt several times), Santa Chiara (1310–40; with the tombs of the Anjou by Tino di Camaino and others, 14th century; in the cloister, »Chiostro delle Maioliche «Called majolica decoration of the 18th century) and the cathedral (originally 13th / 14th century). Sant’Anna dei Lombardi (begun in 1411; with tombs and altars by Benedetto da Maiano, A. Rossellino, G. Mazzoni) date from the early Renaissanceand others) and San Giovanni a Carbonara (begun before 1414, with tombs from the 15th and 16th centuries). A plethora of churches arose in the baroque era – including Gesù Nuovo, Santi Apostoli, Santa Maria Maggiore, Santissima Annunziata. The Certosa San Martino (founded in 1325), located on Monte Calvario below Castel Sant’Elmo (originally 1329–43; changed 1536–46), with a monastery church (original building consecrated in 1368, rebuilt in 1580 ff.) Has been a national museum since 1866. The construction of San Francesco di Paola (early 19th century) follows the Roman pantheon; in front of it two equestrian monuments by A. Canova.
One of the most important secular buildings is the Castel Nuovo, residence of the Neapolitan kings and viceroys, at the same time a fortress to protect the city, symbol of Naples, designed by Charles I of Anjou as a »New Fort« next to the existing Castelli dell’Ovo and Capuano 1279–84 built; after decay since the end of the 14th century, rebuilding under Alfonso I of Aragon since 1442; at the entrance triumphal arch, depicting the entry of Alfonso I; inside the Sala dei Baroni (1452–57) with a star vault. The city gate Porta Capuana, a richly decorated archway (based on a design by Giuliano da Maiano), was built in 1484–88. The Castel Nuovo lost its importance after the construction of the Palazzo Reale (1600-02, based on a design by D. Fontana), Renovation in the 19th and 20th centuries) as the new residence of the kings (now a museum and national library). The most splendid fountain is the Fontana del Nettuno (originally erected at the port in 1600/01, restored by C. Fanzago in 1634–39). In 1737 the Teatro San Carlo was built (renovated after the fire in 1816); opposite the covered passage Galleria Umberto I (1887–90), one of the early shopping malls of the 19th century. In the classicist Villa Floridiana ceramic museum Duca di Martina. The cycle of frescoes in the Zoological Station is a major work by H. von Marées (1873). The M 1 underground line has been declared the Metro dell’Arte. By 2005 (the project is to be continued) seven stations had been artistically furnished (including works by A. Mendini, G. Aulenti, M. Merz). The Capodimonte Castle is located on the northern edge of the city. – UNESCO declared the historic center of Naples a World Heritage Site.