According to abbreviationfinder, Mostar is a city in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, administrative seat of the canton of Herzegovina-Neretva, on the Neretva, southwest of Sarajevo, (2013) 60 200 residents, as an agglomeration 105 800 Residents, about half each Bosniaks and Croats (with strong ethnic segregation).
Catholic and Orthodox bishopric; two universities (founded in 1977, split into a Croatian and a Bosnian university from 1992); Theaters, museums; Mechanical engineering, light metal industry (aluminum smelter), as well as textile, tobacco and food industries, information technology, finance, trade center; international Airport.
Die Altstadt, u. a. mit Karadjoz-Beg-Moschee (1570), die ihren orientalischen Charakter bewahrt hatte, wurde im Bürgerkrieg 1991–95 stark zerstört; die Brücke über die Neretva »Stari Most«, ein Kleinod osmanischer Baukunst auf dem Balkan (1566 vollendet) mit zwei älteren Türmen an beiden Ufern, stürzte 1993 ein und wurde 2001–04 mithilfe der UNESCO detailgetreu restauriert. Sie gilt als Wahrzeichen für Versöhnung und Völkerverständigung. Seit 2005 gehören Altstadt und Brücke zum UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe.
Mostar, created at a narrow point of the Neretva valley, first mentioned in 1452 as a Turkish foundation, became the seat of the Begs des Sanjaks Herzegovina in 1552 and in the 17th and 18th centuries. Century to a rich trading city. Under the administration of Austria-Hungary (1878-1918), Mostar was the seat of the Serbian and Muslim opposition and the suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Sarajevo (from 1881). Mostar came to what would later become Yugoslavia in 1919 and belonged to the Croatian Ustasha state from 1941-44.
The Herzegovinian regional capital Mostar (1991: 126,000 residents), initially captured and occupied by the »Yugoslav People’s Army« and Serbian militias (October 1991 to June 1992; siege from spring 1992), was reconquered by Croatian troops (until autumn 1992; Escape mainly of the Serbian residents) was declared the capital of the Croatian state »Herceg-Bosna«, which was proclaimed on July 3, 1992 and which was in fact attached to Croatia. The Bosniak-Croatian “war at war” (May 1993 to February 1994; on November 8/9, 1993 final destruction of the “Stari Most” as an important link between East and West Mostar by Croatian troops) led to the division of the city (Croatian western part, Bosniak eastern part) and for the establishment of an »EU Administration Mostar« (abbreviation EUAM; 1994–96); the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established in advance (March 1994). With the difficult implementation of the agreement of Dayton (1995; Annex on the status of Mostar), Mostar, which was heavily damaged by the war, especially in the eastern part of Bosniak – with generous EU reconstruction aid – became a model for the protracted reintegration of the ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Herzegovina [hεrtsego vi ː na, hεrtse go ː Vina; »Herzogsland«] the, Bosnian and Croatian Hercegovina [-tsε-], historical landscape, essentially comprises the river basin of the Neretva and its tributaries in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (about 9 100 km 2).The landscape is characterized by the Dinaric Mountains with numerous deeply cut valleys, plateaus, poljes and other karst forms. The rugged mountain ranges in the north of Herzegovina reach heights of over 2,000 m above sea level. From an administrative point of view, the region mainly belongs to the cantons of Herzegovina-Neretva and West Herzegovina of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. With the exception of a narrow entrance to the Adriatic Sea (south of the Neretva estuary), the coastal strip belongs to Croatia. Mostar is the capital of Herzegovina. Herzegovina is the main settlement area of the Croats within the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
History: Hercegovina, settled by Illyrian and Celtic tribes, was ruled by Rome since the 3rd century BC. Wars several times in vain and not finally incorporated into the province of Dalmatia until 9 AD. The ore-rich area was devastated by the Visigoths in 375, fell to West Rome in 395, was under the Ostrogoths since the end of the 5th century and was conquered by Byzantium around 530. South Slavic tribes settled here from the 7th century. With extensive self-government, Herzegovina (the land of Hum) came under Croatian sovereignty around 1000, and under Serbian sovereignty from 1180–1321; From 1322–77, Herzegovina was divided between Serbia and Bosnia. With the decline of the Bosnian Kingdom, she received under Duke Stjepan Vukčić-Kosača (* 1435, † 1466), to whose rule the name Herzegovina (Herceg) can be traced back, temporarily a greater political weight. Integrated into the Ottoman Empire in 1482/83, Herzegovina formed its own administrative area (Wilajet Hersek, German Herzogsland). Vizier Ali Pasha Rizvanbegović took advantage of the crises arising from the Turkish administrative reforms(* around 1385, † 1451) to become largely self-employed; after 1850, however, Herzegovina was again placed under the authority of the sultan. The frequent uprisings (such as 1852–56) contributed by spreading to Bosnia in 1875 to the Great Crisis in the Orient, to the war of Montenegro and Serbia against Turkey (1876) and to the Russo-Turkish War in 1877/78. At the Berlin Congress (1878), the southern part of Herzegovina was added to Montenegro, while the main area, along with Bosnia, was occupied by Austria-Hungary. Since then, Herzegovina has shared the fate of Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina). – Officially not recognized, there was a Croatian state »Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna« (abbreviation HRHB) from 1992–96.