According to abbreviationfinder, Milan is the capital of the Città metropolitana Milan and the Lombardy region, Italy, 100–130 m above sea level, in the northern Po Valley, with (2019) 1.37 million residents, the second largest city in Italy.
Seat of an archbishop; University of Milan (founded in 1923), technical university, private business university, Catholic university, art and music academy, scientific institutes, museums (Pinacoteca di Brera, Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana etc.), libraries (Brera, Ambrosiana etc.) and theater (Teatro alla Scala, Piccolo Teatro and others).
Milan is the most important economic metropolis in Italy. The main focus in industry is on metalworking companies and mechanical engineering (motor vehicles, aircraft, railway vehicles, motors, generators, machines of all kinds), followed by the textile and clothing industry, the chemical industry (four refineries nearby) and the construction industry, the electrical, rubber, food, paper, fashion and furniture industries; In addition, Milan is the Italian printing and publishing center and an important center of attraction in international tourism. The special economic position of the city is ensured by many banks, insurance companies, trading houses, headquarters of large industrial groups, consulates and chambers of commerce in the city, underlined by the stock exchange and by several important international trade fairs (Fiera Campionaria). The international art and antiques fair “Internazionale dell’Antiquariato” has been held annually since 1995. In 2015, Milan hosted the world exhibition EXPO. Milan is at the intersection of the major northern Italian railways, highways, roads and canals; three international airports (Linate, Malpensa, Bergamo); Subway.
Only a few visible remains have been preserved from the Roman settlement of Mediolanum, whose forum has been preserved in the outline of today’s Piazza San Sepolcro. The medieval city fortification (three of the former 18 gates preserved) was due to rapid population growth in the 16th and 17th centuries. Replaced in the 19th century by a bastion-like wall, beginning on both sides of the Castello Sforzesco (former residential fortress F. Sforzas, new building since 1450; restored in the 19th century; today the seat of several museums with extensive art collections and an art library).
The center of Milan is the Gothic city center around the Piazza Mercanti (laid out 1228–51) with several buildings from the 13th to 16th centuries. Century (including Palazzo della Ragione or Broletto Nuovo, Casa Panigarola, Loggia degli Osii, Palazzo dei Giureconsulti) and the Piazza del Duomo with the city’s landmark, the Cathedral of Santa Maria Nascente. It was started in 1386 (built over several previous buildings, the remains of which were uncovered below the cathedral square), consecrated in 1572 (facade completed in the 19th century) and is one of the largest Gothic churches. The five-aisled basilica with a three-aisled transept is clad in marble; Inside numerous works of art, including the seven-armed Trivulzio candelabra (12th / 13th century; a 5 m high bronze chandelier). The classicist building (1771–78) of the Palazzo Reale (originally 12th century, changed several times; with palace chapel San Gottardo and museum for contemporary art) and Palazzo Arcivescovile (Archbishop’s Palace, originally 13th / 14th century). Among the oldest churches in Milan are the central building of San Lorenzo Maggiore (started around 350/370, renewed in the 12th and 16th centuries; early Christian baptistery with mosaics, 5th century), Sant’Ambrogio (the origins date back to the 4th century back, rebuilt after changes in the 9th century in the 11th / 12th century), a three-aisled basilica without a transept with an elongated atrium in the west. The furnishings include the Milanese gold altar (Paliotto), a masterpiece of Carolingian goldsmithing (around 840); an altar canopy (early 12th century); the marble pulpit (12th / 13th century) and in the burial chapel of San Vittore in Ciel d ‘ Oro (5th century) an early Christian mosaic cycle; Sant’Eustorgio (founded in the 4th century, current building 12th / 13th century; behind the apse the Portinari chapel of Michelozzo, 1462-68). Santa Maria delle Grazie (UNESCO World Heritage Site) consists of a Gothic nave and acentral building addedby Bramante from 1492–97 in the east (in the refectory of the former monastery the »Last Supper« by Leonardo da Vinci, restoration 1977–98, open to the public again since 1999).
Among the numerous palaces and secular buildings are to be mentioned: Palazzo Belgioioso (1772–81, by G. Piermarini), Clerici (expanded since 1736), Durini (1645–48), Litta (begun 1648, facade 1752–63), Poldi Pezzoli (Mid-18th century; museum), the Casa Leoni (1573), Villa Reale (1780–96; gallery for modern art) and Ospedale Maggiore (hospital complex, started in 1456, university building since 1954). The Piazza della Scala with Teatro alla Scala (1776–78; 2002–04 restored, modernized and extended by an essay on the administrative building by M. Botta) and Palazzo Marino (town hall; started in 1558) is connected to the cathedral square through the five-storey Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II (1867–77; Giuseppe Mengoni), one of the early covered shopping malls in Europe and the highlight of the architecture of the 2nd half of the 19th century. The Teatro Trianon (on Piazza Liberty) is an example of Art Nouveau.