Maryland State Overview

State of Maryland general data

  • Time zone: 6 hours less than Italy
  • Capital: Annapolis
  • Main towns: Baltimora, Columbia, DundalkEllicott City, Silver Spring, Wheaton-Glenmont.
  • Area: 32.134 km²
  • Population: About 6,000,000 inhabitants.
  • Population density: 186,7 residents / km²
  • State abbreviation: MD
  • Entry into the United States: It joined the United States on April 28, 1788, it is the 7th state to join the union.

Despite its small size, several natural regions can be distinguished in the state of Maryland: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont Plateau, the Catoctin Mountains and the Appalachians. The average height of the Maryland territory is 107 m above sea level, Mount Backbone is the highest point in the state, 1,024 m.

According to, Maryland has just over 50km of ocean coastline, although the huge expanse of the Chesapeake Bay gives the state a strong marine character. In front of the coast there are several islands, such as the Chincoteague and Assawoman islands which form a natural barrier between the ocean and the continent. The coastal plain of Maryland covers approximately half of the territory, extending from the coasts to the Piedmont plateau. The Chesapeake Bay divides the plain into two sections: the east coast and the west coast. This plain is not overly fertile; the southern sector is characterized by small hills. The coast is subject to severe erosion.

The Piedmont plateau covers a quarter of the state’s territory; it extends from the coastal plain to the west. This is an area of ​​hills that rise over 360m. The soil of this plateau is rich from an agricultural point of view. There is also a region of clayey soil, where material is mined that is traditionally used for making bricks, which have given many buildings in the state a distinctive salmon color.

The Catoctin Mountains are part of the Blue Ridge Mountains (or Blue Mountains). These mountains, of metamorphic rock, have an average height of 300 m, with some points above 600 m. The valleys of these mountains are made up of limestone and sedimentary rocks.

To the northwest are the Appalachian Mountains, a region with altitudes between 600 and 1,024m (Mount Backbone). It is an area bordering the state of Virginia, rich in forests and valleys.

The most important rivers of Maryland are the Potomac, which along with its tributaries, flows in the western section of the state, and the Susquehanna River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Small streams flow into the bay, including the Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, Pocomoke, Gunpowder, Patapsco and Patuxent rivers. Maryland has no natural lakes.

Flora and fauna – Strong woods (oak and hickory) predominate in the west, pine trees on the Eastern Shore, rare bears and wild cats are found in the mountains, while deer, opossums, foxes and raccoons abound throughout the state.

The Chesapeake Bay is rich in oysters, crabs and clams and is frequented by numerous migratory birds, geese and wild ducks. Western hunting birds include quail, turkey and other fowl.

The climate of Maryland is continental in the northwestern mountainous region, and subtropical humid in the rest of the territory. In the mountains, temperatures are moderate, with averages around 0 in winter, and around 20 ° C in summer. Snowfall is common in this region during the winter months. In the rest of the territory, temperatures are more moderate, and in winter the thermometer rarely drops below 0, in summer the average temperature is 24 ° C, although it is not uncommon for it to reach 32 ° C. Precipitation in the wetland is abundant, an annual average of 1,000 mm, evenly distributed throughout the year.


According to, Annapolis is the capital of the state of Maryland. Located on the south bank of the River Severn, near its mouth on Chesapeake Bay, the city is the main fishing port and trading center of the agricultural region in which it is located. Its economy is based on administrative activity, the manufacture of electronic components and submarine military devices, in research and in the field of communications.

What see– A stroll down Main Street will take you past the 200 year old Maryland Inn, shops and restaurants serving seafood, to the City Dock, full of boats. From there you get to the Naval Academy, which dates back 150 years. In the visitor center is the Freedom 7 space capsule that took the first American, Alan Shepard, into space. Also worth visiting is the US Naval Academy Museum in Preble Hall, especially to see the gallery of detailed naval models. The Maryland State House, finished in 1779, is the oldest state capitol still active. Annapolis is full of colonial buildings, almost all of which are still in use. William Paca House (1765), by Governor Paca who signed the Declaration of Independence, is a beautiful Georgian house with a lovely garden. Cornhill and Duke of Gloucester Street are also worth seeing, examples of the old residential streets of the city. There are many bus, boat and walking tours available in Annapolis. Those who want to see the city from the water can choose a boat, schooner or kayak. Also interesting are the Palazzo del Tesoro (1735) and the Church of Sant Anna (1858-1859).

History – According to, the first colonizers were the Puritans who came from Virginia in 1649 who baptized the city Providence, followed by the names of, Town of Proctor’s, Town at the Severn, and Anne Arundel Town. In 1694, it became the capital of the state of Maryland, was renamed Annapolis in honor of Princess Anne, who later became Queen of England. Annapolis was the capital of the United States between November 26, 1783 and June 3, 1784.


Baltimore, located in Maryland, in the Chesapeache Bay, is one of the most important ports in the United States, the third of the Atlantic coast. The city inherited its name from Lord Baltimore, who in 1729 founded the first nucleus on a pre-existing settlement. The urban layout of the city is divided into two parts. The ancient core has been preserved with a meticulous restoration, which has made it possible to transform some historical institutions into a museum, such as the old railway station or Fort McHenry, built to defend the port. Next to the old part of the city, huge commercial and administrative complexes have sprung up such as the Charles Center, or the Inner Harbor, which includes two large glass buildings.

What see– The city tour can start from the Inner Harbor, the city’s refurbished harbor front with a shopping and restaurant complex. At the center is one of Baltimore’s most popular attractions, the stunning National Aquarium.

At the port there is also the Maryland Science Center, where you can touch everything thanks to a series of interactive initiatives. The American Visionary Art Museum, also in the Inner Harbor, houses a collection of extraordinary works by self-taught artists made with a variety of materials, from matches to faux pearls. In the uptown is the Baltimore Museum of Art, with works by Matisse, Picasso, Degas, and Van Gogh. The elegant Mount Vernon Square is filled with brick colonial mansions. Also noteworthy is the lively neighborhood of Little Italy, to try its Italian restaurants. Other tourist sites are: House and tomb of the writer Edgar Allan Poe, the basilica of the Assumption which was the first Catholic cathedral built in the United States, built between 1806 and 1821, monument to Christopher Columbus: the first which was dedicated to the famous navigator and explorer, and dates back to 1797. The city is home to several higher education institutions (including Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876). Notable artistic and cultural center, it houses a theater, the Morris Mechamc Theater, a permanent symphony orchestra, the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, and an opera company, the Baltimore Opera Company.

Baltimore’s economy has its spearheads in the port, which in terms of grain and coal traffic is still the first on the Atlantic coast, and on a powerful industrial network that includes colossal steel plants, such as Bethlehem Steel, and textiles, to which industries dealing with electronics and biotechnology have been added in recent decades.

History– Founded in 1729, Baltimore is named after Lord Cecil Calvert Baltimore, former governor of Maryland. The favorable geographical position allowed, in the years following the American war of independence, the demographic growth of the city and its development as a commercial center. In 1827, to give new impetus to the city’s economy threatened by the recent opening (1825) of the Erie Canal in the Great Lakes region, the first railway line in the United States was built, linking Baltimore with Ohio. During the Civil War (1861-65) the city, deployed alongside the Union, was the scene of violent clashes that led to the imposition of martial law by the northerners. Since the second half of the 19th century Baltimore has become an important industrial center.

The two world wars favored a great industrial development, in particular in the steel sector and oil refineries, leading to a diversification of its economy.

Maryland State Overview