According to abbreviationfinder, Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia, 290 m above sea level, in Carniola on both sides of the Ljubljanica (Laibach), which flows into the Save below Ljubljana, (2019) 284 400 residents.
Ljubljana is the country’s cultural, educational and economic center as well as the seat of a Catholic archbishop. The university (founded in 1595 as a Jesuit college, newly founded in 1809, reopened in 1919) is one of the largest universities in Europe with over 63,000 students; Affiliated to it are the art and music academy as well as the academy for theater, radio, film and television; there is also the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (founded in 1938), nuclear research institute, several libraries; zoological and botanical garden. The main museums are the National Museum, National Gallery, Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Illusions, House of Experiments, City Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Natural History Museum, Technical Museum.
The leading industry is telecommunications and software development. The most important branches of industry are pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals. The service sector is the largest employer (trade, finance, public service, transport). The road and rail network in Slovenia is oriented towards Ljubljana. The international airport is north of the city.
The oldest preserved building is the Gothic mountain castle (12th century) above the city, as the seat of the Duke of Carniola in the 15th and 16th centuries. Rebuilt in the 19th century (keep 19th century). The cityscape is mainly characterized by baroque buildings: Franciscan Church (1646–60), a single-nave building with side chapels; St. Nicholas Cathedral, built on the site of a Romanesque-Gothic building 1700–07, with frescoes in the vaults and side chapels (after 1703; baroque furnishings); Ursuline Church (1718–26), an example of Slovenian baroque art. There are also palaces and houses from the 15th to 18th centuries. Century as well as buildings of Viennese historicism and Art Nouveau. The old town is a listed building.
A legionary camp built near the Illyrian settlement of Emona was built around 34 BC. BC Roman colony under Emperor Tiberius. Destroyed by the Huns in 452, the Slavic repopulation took place in the 7th century. From the 8th century under Frankish rule, the city was first known as Laibach in 1144 and under the Slovenian name of Luwigana in 1146 mentioned. It belonged to the Carinthian Duchy of the Spanheimers, the seat of a commander of the Teutonic Order since 1263. At the end of the 13th century to the Counts of Görz, fell to the House of Habsburg in 1276 and 1335 respectively (until 1918), Ljubljana rose to become the capital of Carniola instead of Krainburg and received town charter in 1320. In the 16th century, Ljubljana (from 1461 bishopric) was the starting point of the Slovenian Reformation and the seat of a Protestant collegiate school, from 1809-13 the capital of the Napoleonic Illyrian provinces. From the middle of the 19th century, Ljubljana became the center of the Slovenian national movement. Ljubljana, which belonged to Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1991, has been the capital of the Republic of Slovenia since 1945 (independence was achieved in 1991).
Celje [ t ʃ.epsilon. ː ljε], German Cilli, city in Slovenia, at the Sann, (2019) 37,900 residents.
Catholic bishopric; Zinc smelter, metalworking and chemical, textile and wood industries.
Ober-Cilli castle ruins (14th century); Renaissance palace of the Counts of Cilli (1580–1660) with arcaded courtyard and rich furnishings (ballroom with painted coffered ceiling); Church of Saint Daniel (14th century) with a Gothic chapel and stained glass (partly 15th century).
Celje, the Roman Claudia Celeia, was destroyed by the Slavs at the end of the 6th century, rebuilt as a border fortress of Carinthia and later Styria in the 9th century . City law. In 1456 Celje came to the Habsburgs from the Counts of Cilli, and in 1919 it fell to Yugoslavia.
Kranj, German Krainburg, city in Slovenia, on the Save in Upper Carniola, (2019) 37,500 residents.
Vehicle construction, electrotechnical-electronic, automotive supplier and leather industries.
Church of Saint Crantianus (choir 1400); Former castle of the Counts of Ortenburg (16th / 17th century) with partially preserved renaissance furnishings and arcade courtyard.
Fortified base (Carnium) in Roman times, capital of the Ottonian march Craina (Carniola) in the 10th century.
The constitution (Article 41) guarantees freedom of religion and legally equates all religious communities (Article 7). As the basis of the secular understanding of the state of the Slovenian state, the principle of the separation of state and church is anchored in the constitution (Article 7). For the relations of the state to the religious communities (among other things for their registration) there has been an office for religious communities assigned to the government since 1994. Relations between the state and the Catholic Church as the largest religious community are based on the agreement concluded in 2001 between the government and the Holy See and entered into force in 2004 on fundamental issues relating to the legal status of the Catholic Church in Slovenia.
According to the latest available estimates, over 78% of the population profess Christianity: a good 74% belong to the Catholic Church, around 3% to Orthodox churches (especially the Serbian Orthodox Church [Archdiocese of Zagreb-Ljubljana, seat: Zagreb / Croatia]) 1% Protestant religious communities (predominantly Lutherans), around 0.1% of the “Old Catholic Church in Slovenia”. The Catholic Church includes the archbishopric of Ljubljana and Maribor with four suffragan dioceses (Celje, Koper, Murska Sobota, Novo Mesto). The largest Protestant church is the “Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession in Slovenia” with around 0.5% of the population (especially in the Übermur area), whose historical starting point was the work of P. Trubar.
The estimated 3.6% Muslim population in Slovenia have their own spiritual authority in their Mufti (seat: Ljubljana). The small Jewish community has its seat in Ljubljana (synagogue; inaugurated 2003); its history goes back to the beginning of the 19th century, when Jews were allowed to resettle in Slovenia for the first time since the middle of the 15th century. – About 18% of the population can be classified as unbelievers or atheists.