Liverpool, United Kingdom

According to abbreviationfinder, Liverpool is the the core city of the former metropolitan county of Merseyside in western England (Liverpool is an independent metropolitan district), at the mouth of the Mersey in the Irish Sea, 552,300 residents (1951: 788,700 residents), the agglomeration has 864 100 residents;Anglican bishopric and catholic archbishopric; University of Liverpool (founded 1881) with School of Tropical Medicine, John Moores University (founded 1970, university since 1992), Liverpool Hope University College, Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts (founded 1995). With the opening of Tate Liverpool in 1988, showing 20th century art from the Tate’s collection, Liverpool became a major museum city in Great Britain. Liverpool owns the important Walker Art Gallery, built 1874-76, the Merseyside Museum of Labor History (exhibitions on the lives of workers), the Beatles Museum “The Beatles Story” (Liverpool is the birthplace of the four musicians), a maritime museum and a symphony orchestra.

After the Second World War, the once important export and passenger port collapsed. The old port facilities in the urban area were shut down, and a new port was built seaward in the neighboring town of Bootle. Liverpool’s industry includes the manufacture of food and beverages, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, clothing and furniture, as well as machine and vehicle construction, rubber, paper, glass, precision engineering, electronics and printing; new industrial parks were built on the periphery; increasing service industry and tourism. With the opposite Birkenhead Liverpool is connected by a rail tunnel and two road tunnels. In the long unused old port area, renovation measures were accelerated in the 1980s. The warehouses at Albertdock now house apartments, offices, boutiques, restaurants and a television studio, the Maritime Museum and the Tate Liverpool (conversion of the former warehouse according to plans by J. Stirling and M. J. Wilford and Partners). Extensive urban renewal measures are being carried out in the city center; international airport (John Lennon Airport).


During the city expansion in the 18th century, a. 1754 the Town Hall (in the Palladian style; dome added after fire in 1795); Saint George’s Hall, built in the same style, was completed in 1854. The Anglican Cathedral on Saint James’ Mount above the city (built 1904–78 in neo-Gothic style to designs by G. G. Scott, 1907–60 under his direction) is the largest church in Great Britain. Construction of the Catholic cathedral began in 1928, but only the extensive crypt was completed by 1941; A tent-shaped central structure in skeleton construction with a drum-like top was built above it by F. Gibberd in 1960-67 (and consecrated to Christ the King). The new building for the Philharmonie was built in 1937–39 based on plans by Herbert Rowse (* 1887, † 1963). In the late 1960s, the Saint John’s Beacon television tower was built. Arup & Associates built the Festival Hall in 1984. On the banks of the Mersey, the Liver Building (1908-11). Refurbishment measures and new building projects were initiated in the course of Liverpool’s election (2004) as European Capital of Culture in 2008.


Vikings settled in the 8th centuryon either side of the Mersey. Liverpool, first mentioned around 1191, received city rights in 1207, but grew slowly. It was only trade with America and the West Indies and the development of industry in southern Lancashire that promoted the rise of the city. Since around 1700 their merchants participated in the slave trade. The first dock was built at the port in 1715, and four more were added at the end of the 18th century. With the advent of steam shipping to America in the 19th century, Liverpool became one of the most important ports on earth. To commemorate this development, six areas in the historic city center were declared UNESCO World Heritage and in 2012 included in the “Red List” of the particularly endangered world heritage, as the historical character is endangered by a planned new building project. The parish became 1880 City, 1888 County Borough.

Natural resources

Great Britain and Northern Ireland have large reserves of hard coal, oil and natural gas. The mining of the not very rich copper, tin (in Cornwall) and iron ore has now been stopped. The coal reserves are estimated at 228 billion t (including rich deposits under the North Sea); 45 billion t are considered to be exploitable. However, mining them is no longer profitable in most areas due to the low world market prices and high development costs. Coal mining, which has been part of the nationalized British Coal Corporation since 1947, was privatized in 1994. The privatization was preceded by another large wave of mine closures, which particularly affected the areas in the eastern Midlands and West Yorkshire. Since 1960, in the course of several waves of decommissioning, coal production has increased from 194.5 million t to (1980) 110.3 million. t dropped dramatically to 5.3 million t in 2015. A major cause of the recent decline in coal mining was the sharp decline in coal purchases by energy companies.

Crude oil has been produced in the North Sea since 1975. Exports began in 1976, and from 1980–2009 British oil demand could be covered by its own production. The secured reserves amount to (2015) 400 million t. Natural gas has been produced since 1967. Here, too, Great Britain and Northern Ireland are self-sufficient (secured reserves 200 billion m 3). Submarine gas pipelines lead to terminals at Bacton, Theddlethorpe, Easington and Saint Fergus on the east coast; Oil pipeline to Teesport, Curden Bay and Inergordon as well as Flotta in the Orkney Islands and Sullom Voe in the Shetland Islands. In terms of gas production, Great Britain and Northern Ireland belong to (2015) 39.7 billion m 3to the most important gas producers in Europe. Around a third of gas production is used to generate energy.

Liverpool, United Kingdom