According to abbreviationfinder, Kiev is the capital of Ukraine and the territory Kiev, both sides of the Dnieper, (2019) 2.95 million residents (about 94% Ukrainians, 5% Russians); the agglomeration has around 4.1 million residents.
The city is the economic, scientific, spiritual and cultural center of Ukraine with six important universities (Mohyla Academy since 1632 and again in 1992; National University since 1834; National Technical University since 1898; National Economic University since 1906; National University of Construction and Architecture since 1930; National University of Commerce and Economics since 2000), over 90 other universities and higher education institutions, the headquarters of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, more than 300 research institutes, over 20 book publishers, libraries, around 40 museums, seven theaters, Goethe Institute, Planetarium, zoological garden and two botanical gardens as well as several film and television studios.Kiev is the seat of the Metropolitans of the three Ukrainian Orthodox Churches (the Moscow Patriarchate, the Kiev Patriarchate and the Autocephalous Church) and (since August 2005) the Grand Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
As the most important economic center of the Ukraine, Kiev has a large number of banks and foreign business representations as well as companies in a diverse industry: mechanical engineering (electronic and precision mechanical equipment, shipbuilding, construction machinery and aircraft construction), chemical, pharmaceutical, construction, light and food industries. The energy industry is also very important. North of Kiev, the 110 km long and up to 12 km wide Kiev reservoir of the Dnieper was built between 1964 and 1966with hydropower plant (360 MW) and pump storage plant (225 MW). Kiev is the leading trading center in Ukraine, the location of the stock exchange and the organizer of international trade fairs.
The city is an important traffic junction with port facilities for smaller seagoing ships as well as three airports (international flights in Boryspil and Schuljany; cargo airport Hostomel). The subway opened in 1960.
It was not until after the 17th century that the oldest parts of Kiev, lying west of the Dnieper, grew together: the upper town, the lower town (Podil) with the natural harbor and the southern suburb of Pechersk around the cave monastery. The city was badly damaged during the Second World War. After the reconstruction, many new residential areas and industrial facilities were created from 1958 (including industrial and residential areas east of the Dnieper [flat meadow bank]).
From the former city wall with 4 gates from the 1st half of the 11th century, the “Golden Gate” (1024), built from bricks, renovated in 1982 and supplemented by parts, has been preserved. In the city center is the St. Sophia Cathedral (UNESCO World Heritage Site), built 1017–37, destroyed in 1240, in the 17th and 18th centuries. Rebuilt in the 19th century; a five-aisled cross-dome, a vestibule and a bell tower were added to the original building; Inside there is a rich mosaic and fresco decoration (1046 to around 1067). Nearby was the Desjatynna (Tenth) Church, built in 989–996, the first stone church of the Rus, which was destroyed in 1240 (Mongol storm) and, after its new building (19th century), was destroyed again in 1936 (»city modernization«). B. F. Rastrelli (1747–52) built.
The Kiev Pecherskaya Monastery (Kiewo-Pecherskaya Lavra; UNESCO World Heritage Site), built 11-18. Century, is the oldest existing monastery in the Russian-Ukrainian region (Lavra); the Assumption Cathedral (1073–78), main church of the monastery, was destroyed in 1941 and rebuilt in 1998–2002; the Trinity Gate Church (originally 1106-08) was redesigned in the 18th century (St. Sophia Cathedral and Pechersk Lavra in Kiev [World Heritage]).
Other significant works of the 11th and 12th centuries are the Wydubytscher monastery with the Michael’s Church (1070–88, remodeled in the 18th century), the Michael’s Cathedral with the golden domes (1108–13; last destroyed in 1935 and 1994– 99 newly built), the Church of the Redeemer of Berestowe (1113–25) and the Kyrillkirche (1114–46, today’s form from the 17th / 18th centuries; with wall paintings), which belonged to the monastery of the same name. Early medieval buildings in the lower town are the Illinkirche (10th century, changed in the 18th / 19th century) and the Church of Our Lady of Pyrogoschtscha (1131–36).
Churches from the 18th century are preserved in all parts of the old town, e.g. For example, the Pokrov and Embankment Church of St. Nicholas in Podil, the Resurrection and All Saints Church in Pechersk. The Klower Palace is one of the most important examples of the Ukrainian Baroque. Buildings of Classicism u. A. the main building of today’s National University (1837–43) and the “contract house” (1815–17). The Vladimir Cathedral (1862–96), the merchants’ assembly building (1882, now the Philharmonic) and the opera house (1899–1901) were built in historicist architectural forms. Evidence from the Art Nouveau period are the generous »Bessarabische Bazaar« (1910–12) and many residential buildings in the city center.
After Kiev was declared the capital (1934), numerous monumental representative buildings were erected in the course of the general development plan from 1938 to 1940, which was aimed at modernizing the city. the building of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR (1934–38) and the central department store (1936–39). After 1945 the Kreschtschatik, the old main thoroughfare of the city, was rebuilt with representative social buildings. In the period that followed, further general development plans (1955, 1967) formed the basis for the modern development and expansion of the city. The first district on the left bank of the river, Rusanivka, was built in 1963–72. By 1995, living space for around 1 million residents was built in further left-hand districts of the city; five six- to eight-lane Dnieper bridges have served city traffic since then. An architecturally free,