India Geography and Population

India – this true mystery of the East, the country of maharajas and snake charmers – reveals its secrets to us. The variety of our tours to India covers all corners of this magnificent distant country – from the northern snows of Jammu and Kashmir to the hot southern beaches of Kerala and Goa; Hindu temples of the valley of the sacred Ganges, ashrams of great teachers, safaris in national parks and reserves, colorful holidays and festivals. An abundance of souvenirs, spices, the brightest colors of outfits, aromas, jewelry and unique food – all this adds up to a kaleidoscope of unforgettable experiences on our carefully crafted tours.

India is one of the largest countries in the world, the second (after China) in terms of population. It occupies the vast Hindustan peninsula and the continental plains and plateaus adjacent to it. In the north, India borders on Afghanistan, Bhutan, China and Nepal, in the east – on Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma), in the west – on Pakistan. In the east it is washed by the Bay of Bengal, in the south – by the Polk Strait and the Indian Ocean, in the west – by the Arabian Sea. India includes the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, as well as the islands of Laccadive, Amindive and Minicoy in the southeastern part of the Arabian Sea.

According to SCIENCEDICT.COM, India is a huge subcontinent located in southern Asia. It borders with Afghanistan, Pakistan in the northwest, in the north – with China, Nepal, Bhutan, in the east – with Burma and Bangladesh. In the south, a narrow strait separates India from Sri Lanka.

The Indian peninsula is bordered by the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Three natural regions are distinguished on the territory of India: in the north – this is the mountain range of the Himalayas and the Karakoram, in the south – the Deccan plateau with its coastal lowlands, in the middle – the Indo-Gangetic lowland.

The geographical location of India determined the extraordinary richness and diversity of its flora and fauna. On the territory of the country there are about 50 thousand species of plants, about 400 species of mammals, the same number of reptiles and about 60 thousand species of insects. Despite the fact that most of the peninsula has been developed by man, elephants, rhinoceros, lions, tigers, and wild gaur bulls are still found in parks and some areas. Here you can also see flocks of parrots, peacocks and other tropical birds. In addition to hundreds of species of fish, crocodiles live in reservoirs. Near human habitats, both in villages and cities, countless monkeys and snakes are found, including the Indian cobra and reticulated python – all, as in the stories of R. Kipling. Throughout India, contrasting landscapes continuously replace each other. Here you can find sandy and rocky deserts, alpine meadows, forests of huge Himalayan spruces, bamboo thickets, tall grasses in swampy lowlands at the foot of mountains, endless fields in river valleys. Lush tropical vegetation alternates with fields of cotton and sugar cane. Palm groves with tea bush and rubber plantations.

More than 1 billion people live in India today. 72% of the population are Indo-Aryan peoples, 25% are Dravidians and up to 3% are representatives of the Mongolian subrace. The most numerous are Hindustanis, Telugu (Andhra), Marathas, Bengalis, Biharis, Tamils, Gujaratis, Kannara, Malayali, Punjabis.

The largest cities in the country are Bombay, also known as Mumbai, (the largest port and most populous city in India with a population of 15 million), Kolkata (13 million), Delhi (11 million) and Madras (6 million). Since time immemorial, waves of conquerors and settlers have invaded the territory of India. The existing caste system contributed to the preservation of ethnic diversity, and today on the street you can meet people who are very light, European-looking, and dark-skinned, and Mongoloids. 7% of the population are classified as “backward tribes” often living in the Stone Age.

Climate India is hot, so you do not need to bring warm clothes with you. It is necessary to wear clothes made of natural silk, cotton, light woolen fabrics during the trip. The first-aid kit should contain medicines for intestinal diseases, tablets for water sterilization. It’s a good idea to bring sunscreen with you.

The climate of India in the south is closer to equatorial, in the north – to mountainous subtropical. The change of seasons is determined by the monsoons. The hot, dry season lasts from April to June – the average temperature is +45*C. From the end of July to October, the rainy season lasts – the temperature is + 38 * C. The coolest period is December – January, the temperature is +19*С. The sky during this period is almost cloudless.
The tourist season lasts from October to March, and the best months for traveling in India are November and December.

The official languages ​​are English and Hindi. There are 18 official languages ​​in India, including English – the language of office work and official documents, 844 dialects. For everyday communication, the level of school English is enough.
In the north of the country, the majority of the population speaks Hindi, but all educated people and those who deal with tourists speak English, and sometimes, especially in Delhi, even Russian. But if you want to show off in front of an Indian and gain his special favor, learn a few words in Hindi.

83% of the population professes Hinduism, 12% – Islam, the rest – Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christianity. Any discrimination based on religion is punishable by law.

India Geography