According to abbreviationfinder, Hamburg is the second largest German city and world port on the lower Elbe with an area of 755 km 2 and (2019) 1.8 million residents.
In addition to the university, the Technical University and the new HafenCity University, Hamburg has art and technical colleges as well as several research institutes, including the Hamburg World Economic Archives and the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY). Hamburg has the oldest German opera (Hamburg State Opera), several theaters and museums. The city enjoys a special reputation as a location for popular musical theaters. Hagenbeck’s zoo is also known.
In the structural change of the last few decades, the Hamburg economy has changed from raw material-oriented industrial companies to high-tech companies and to logistics and media management. As a trading center, the city has a stock exchange and is the seat of many banks and insurance companies. In addition, Hamburg is one of the most popular cities in Germany as a travel destination. The Port of Hamburg is the largest German seaport (third in Europe).
Hamburg has a share in four natural areas: the South Holstein Geest, the glacial valley of the Lower Elbe, the terminal moraine area of the Black Mountains and the Wadden Sea around Neuwerk.
The Geestrand in the northern part of Hamburg between Blankenese and Bergedorf descends steeply (especially in the west) to the Elbe, it is interrupted by the depression of the Alster, which is dammed up to the Outer Alster and the Inner Alster.
The glacial valley is predominantly filled with river marshes. In the southeast, the Vierlande stretch between the Elbe and Geestrand and are traversed by oxbow lakes of the Elbe. To the west of the Vierlande, the Elbe splits into the Norderelbe and the Süderelbe with the Köhlbrand. The marshland that lies between the two arms formerly consisted of numerous small islands that were diked, reshaped and heaped up to form a contiguous area with port and industrial facilities. Marshland is also the area on the southern bank of the Elbe between Harburg and Cranz and the mouth of the Alster. In the south of Hamburg belongs part of the Black Mountains with the Harburg Mountains, which are under nature protection.
The Wadden Sea around the island of Neuwerk has been a nature reserve in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park (137.5 km 2) since 1990.
The landmark of Hamburg is the 132 m high tower of the Michaeliskirche (“Michel”), near which the entertainment district St. Pauli is located. The Speicherstadt, built in 1884-1910 with its warehouses and office buildings, is located on the canals of the former free port. The latest urban development project is the design of HafenCity; the Elbphilharmonie was opened here in January 2017.
Hamburg emerged around 825 and became an important member of the Hanseatic League. In the 16th and 17th centuries it achieved international recognition as a maritime trading center, where it was able to successfully defend its independence against Denmark. In 1871 Hamburg joined the German Empire.
Hamburg became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. The first mayor has been Peter Tschentscher (* 1966, SPD) since March 2018.
Hamburg is an important transport hub for northern Germany and northern Europe. The port is of particular importance (total area 71.05 km 2, including 42.6 km 2 land area). It was created as an open tidal port (average tidal range 3.83 m). In 1888 the Customs Association of the German Empire granted Hamburg a free port area, which lasted 16.3 km 2but was abolished on January 1, 2013. The universal port has a total of 280 berths for ocean-going vessels, 40 of which are mooring berths for container and bulk carriers. The length of the quay walls is 43 km. With a total throughput of 136.5 million t (2017), Hamburg is the largest German seaport (in Europe in 3rd place) and takes on an important function as a transit port, especially for goods traffic to Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also a center for trade with China (over 400 Chinese companies are based). The port ranks 17th among the largest container ports in the world (2017: 8.8 million TEU container throughput). Over 98% of the general cargo was handled in containers in 2017. Around 10,000 ships call at the Port of Hamburg every year. It connects 950 ports in 178 countries. More than 1,200 freight trains run in the Port of Hamburg every week. The Kiel Canal connects Hamburg with Scandinavia, the Baltic States and Russia on the sea side. Inland waterways (Middle and Upper Elbe, Elbe Lateral Canal) connect Hamburg with eastern Germany and the Czech Republic. In 2017, goods handled by inland waterway vessels amounted to 10.7 million t.
Hamburg is the largest railway junction in northern Europe. The city is connected to the ICE high-speed network of Deutsche Bahn. The Maschen marshalling yard (Lower Saxony), which went into operation in 1977, is one of the most modern and efficient in Europe. In local public transport, rapid transit trains (underground, suburban and regional trains) play the main role.
Hamburg has good long-distance road connections, including: the A 1 in the east and the A 7 with the Elbe tunnel in the west. With 2,500 bridges, Hamburg is the city with the most bridges in Europe. The port parts to the east and west of the 325 m wide arm of the Süderelbe, called Köhlbrand at this point, have been connected by the Köhlbrand Bridge since 1974.
A total of 159 780 take-offs and landings were carried out at Hamburg Airport in 2017, handling 17.6 million passengers (5th place in Germany). A new terminal was opened in 2005 as part of an expansion program.