According to abbreviationfinder, Glasgow is the largest city and most important industrial and commercial center of Scotland, as well as an independent administrative area (Council Area), both sides of the Clyde, 32 km above the mouth, 612 000 residents (agglomeration: 1.66 million residents);Seat of a Catholic Archbishop and an Anglican Bishop. Glasgow is a cultural center with the University of Glasgow (founded in 1451), University of Strathclyde (founded 1796 as Anderson’s Institution, 1913–64 part of the University of Glasgow, since 1964 an independent university) and Glasgow Caledonian University, arts and others. Universities, libraries (including the Mitchell Library founded in 1874), Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (with paintings from various European schools), Burrel Collection (opened in 1983, built by B. Gasson Architects; with works of art from the Neolithic to around 1900), Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery (oldest museum in Scotland, at the University of Glasgow), Center of Contemporary Arts and other museums, seat of the Scottish Opera, the Scottish Ballet.
The formerly important shipbuilding industry, whose development began in the early 19th century, was affected by numerous plant closings after the First World War and from 1971 onwards. Glasgow also has mechanical engineering, electrical, chemical, textile and food industries. These were also affected by the decline in the 1980s and 1990s. The economy today is dominated by services (financial services, public administration, education, health care, and leisure and tourism). The port is accessible for ocean-going ships; international airport (Glasgow International). The subway, which runs circularly around the city center, was opened to traffic in 1896 (modernized 1977-80).
The formerly extensive inner-city slum areas of Glasgow were largely redeveloped from the mid-1970s. To relieve Glasgow and to absorb the population from redevelopment areas, the New Towns East Kilbride and Cumbernauld were built around Glasgow.
The cathedral was built from the beginning of the 13th century on the site of a predecessor, consecrated in 1136 and destroyed in a fire in 1197, within the medieval castle district (with an early Gothic choir above an extensive lower church, the nave dates from the 15th century; including modern stained glass).
The image of today’s city with a regular road network is shaped by urban development in the late 18th century (Trades’ Hall, 1791, by R. Adam; Royal Exchange, 1829, by D. Hamilton). Buildings influenced by the Greek Revival were built in the mid-19th century (Saint Vincent Street Church, 1859; Caledonia Road Church, 1857). The City Chambers were built by W. Young in the neo-Renaissance style in 1883-89, the new building for the University of Glasgow was built in 1870 under the direction of G. G. Scott. C. R. Mackintosh developed it around 1900on several buildings that reject Victorian architecture, his architectural style, which is characterized by clear cubic forms. This includes the Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909). The art college was badly destroyed by a major fire in May 2014; Even before the restoration work was complete, it fell victim to another major fire in June 2018.
The Clyde Auditorium concert hall (opened in 1997) was designed by N. Foster. The Glasgow Science Center (with cinema, museum and 127 m high Glasgow Tower) opened in 2001. The new Clyde Arc road bridge over the River Clyde was opened to traffic in 2006.
Glasgow, in Celtic Glas Ghu (“Green Valley”), located on the site of a fortified prehistoric settlement, began its urban development in the 6th century when St. Kentigern founded a Christian community here around 550 and built the first church. In 1350 the first stone bridge was built over the Clyde; In 1450 Glasgow became the “Royal Burgh” (Burgh) and in 1451 the seat of a university. Since the 17th century, Glasgow developed into a flourishing trading city, which in the 18th century assumed an important position in the American trade (location mainly of the tobacco intermediate trade). The cotton industry emerged around 1800, which was later replaced by the iron and steel industry and shipbuilding. In 1990 Glasgow became the European Capital of Culture appointed. – The diocese, which has existed since 1116, was converted into an archdiocese in 1492 and by the Reformation into a diocese of the Episcopal Church. The Catholic Archdiocese was rebuilt in 1878.
Only 1.2% of the workforce is employed in agriculture and fishing; This sector (including forestry) only accounts for 0.6% of GDP (2014). British agriculture is highly productive due to its high level of performance and good technical equipment.
In Great Britain and Northern Ireland (2013) 71.3% of the land area is used for agriculture, 26.1% of the land area is used for arable farming or permanent crops. Pasture areas are mainly found in the mountainous areas of the west and north. Farms with predominantly arable farming are mainly in the east and central south of England and on the east side of Scotland; The main crops are wheat, barley, oilseed rape, sugar beet and potatoes. Fruit and vegetable growing are mostly found in Kent, East Anglia and the western Midlands. Three fifths of the full-time farms deal with dairy farming and livestock farming (cattle and sheep). Sheep farming has grown in importance while cattle numbers have declined. When it comes to sheep meat, the UK and Northern Ireland have gone from being an importer to an exporter. BSE crisis, the European Commission issued a ban on the export of cattle and beef from Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1996-99. In 2001, the foot-and-mouth disease that appeared again led to serious setbacks in the livestock industry.
Forestry: 12.9% of the country’s area (around 3.1 million hectares) was forested in 2013; Scotland and England have the largest areas of forest, while Wales and especially Northern Ireland are relatively sparsely forested. In 2013, 10.8 million m 3 ofwood were felled, of which 3.57 million m 3 were sawn.
Fisheries: Great Britain and Northern Ireland is one of the most important fishing nations in the EU. The fishery is mainly concentrated on the south-west and east coasts between the Humber and Moray Firth and in north-west and north Scotland, including the Shetland Islands. The British fishing fleet (7,600 registered boats) landed 631,400 tonnes of fish in 2012; in addition, 203,000 t were obtained in fish farms (mainly salmon). The main fishing ports are Newlyn, Brixham, Plymouth, Grimsby and Kingston upon Hull in England and Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Scrabster, Lerwick, Aberdeen, Lochinver and Mallaig in Scotland.