Copenhagen, Denmark

According to abbreviationfinder, Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark, on the east of the island of Zealand and Amager, the Øresund; the actual city has (2018) 613 319 residents.

In addition to the city of Copenhagen, the agglomeration (2018: 1.3 million residents) also includes Frederiksberg (which is an enclave in the Copenhagen district) and Gentofte. With the Swedish Malmö and Lund, Copenhagen forms the cross-border metropolitan region of Øresund.

Copenhagen is the center of the administration, intellectual and cultural life and economy of Denmark. It is the royal residence, seat of the Folketing (Parliament) and the government, the Supreme Court, the Maritime and Commercial Court and the National Bank; also the seat of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and an Evangelical Lutheran and Catholic bishop. Copenhagen has numerous leading institutions of education, science and culture: Academy of Sciences, University (founded in 1479), Technical University, Engineering School, IT University, Pedagogical University, Business School, Royal Art Academy, Royal Conservatory, many technical schools; National Library (Danish Royal Library), Royal Theater, Opera, Playhouse, several private theaters, numerous museums (National Museum, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, State Art Museum, Thorvaldsens Museum, etc.). The Tivoli (opened in 1843), one of the oldest amusement parks in Europe, on the old wall is world-famous.

Deindustrialization is making itself felt even more strongly in Copenhagen than in the rest of Denmark. Only the pharmaceutical industry is overrepresented. Two world-famous breweries have merged, but only produce in Jutland. Most of the workforce works in the service sector, particularly in trade and transport, education and health, administration and finance. Tourism also plays an important role.

From the port, the most important in Denmark, there are also ferry connections. to Świnoujście (German Swinemünde) and Oslo. Copenhagen Airport (opened in 1924; 2017: 29.2 million passengers) is located in Kastrup on Amager. In 2000, a fixed connection (bridge, tunnel) for railways and motor vehicles across the Öresund to Malmö (Sweden) was put into operation. Copenhagen has had a metro since 2002, which, together with the S-Bahn, is the main mode of public transport; it has been expanded by a city ring since 2009.


In the old town to the northwest of the castle island, the course of the road from the 12th century has largely been preserved. This is where the originally oldest church in the city is located, the Frauenkirche (Vor Frue Kirke, Dom), which was renovated several times after fires, most recently in 1811–29 as a classicist building by C. F. Hansen.

Next to the church is the university (1831–36), for the vestibule of which C. C. Hansen created frescoes in 1844–53. Trinitatis Kirke (consecrated in 1656) and »Round Tower« (1642, formerly with observatory) form a building complex that symbolically combines religion and exact science. The classicist Domhus (1815, courthouse since 1903) on Nytorv in the center of the old town is the work of C. F. Hansen.

On the Schlossinsel, Christiansborg Palace was built in 1733 ff. On the remains of the medieval castle of Bishop Absalon (burned down several times, most recently renewed in 1907–28), at the same time the seat of government and parliament; it houses the royal audience rooms, as well as the Foreign Ministry and the Supreme Court. On the island are also the castle church (1826), court theater (1766, museum), armory (1598–1604, museum), stock exchange in the Dutch Renaissance style (1619–40) and Thorvaldsen Museum (1839–48, based on plans by G. Bindesbøll) with the entire work of the sculptor.

Opposite the castle island is the Christianshavn district on the northern tip of the island of Amager with the Church of the Redeemer (Vor Frelsers Kirke, 1682–96; tower with outer spiral ramp, 1747–52; high altar by N. Tessin the Younger, inaugurated in 1732). North of the castle island are Holmens Kirke (built in 1619 using a magnificent gable from 1562/63) and the National Bank (1965–78 by A. Jacobsen). The Royal Theater (1872–74), Charlottenborg Palace (1672–83, Art Academy since 1754) and a residence of the court architect C. F. Harsdorff are on Kongens Nytorv(1779/80), who created an exemplary town house in Denmark for a long time. To the north adjoin: the planned districts of New Copenhagen (17th century) with Rosenborg Castle (built 1608–34 as a pleasure palace, now a museum) and Frederiksstad (18th century) with the royal residence Amalienborg (originally 1667–73; new erected 1754 ff. as an octagonal square consisting of four palaces by N. Eigtved), which closes the colonnade (1795) by Harsdorff in the south.

As the western end of the axis through Amalienborgplatz, construction of the marble church (Frederiks Kirke) began in 1749 (only completed in 1894 in the Roman Baroque style). The “Little Mermaid” (1913) by E. Eriksen sits on a rock by the harbor on the “Langelinie” in front of the fortress (Kastellet, 17th century).

In the new center south of the old town, the town hall was built from 1892–1905, which was understood as national architecture against the prevailing German influence; Not far from there are the National Museum (1743–44; 1989–92 modernized and expanded) and the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek (1892–97, 1901–06 expanded; extension by H. Larsen, 1996); opposite the main station (1904–11) is the SAS building (1956–60) by A. Jacobsen. – In Frederiksberg there is a castle (built 1699–1703 as a summer residence, later expanded) and a castle church (consecrated in 1710).

Copenhagen, Denmark