According to abbreviationfinder, Bristol is the trading and port city and unitary authority in south-west England, on the Avon, above its confluence with the Severn Estuary, 437,000 residents; from 1974 to 1996 in County Avon;Bishopric (Church of England); Headquarters of the Ministry of Defense’s main procurement office, two universities, City Museum and Art Gallery (important collection of paintings), Arnolfini (center for contemporary art, music and theater), radio and television studios; Zoological Garden. The most important branches of industry are the aerospace industry, machine and vehicle construction, production of hot air balloons, film production, luxury food and milling industries, chemical, electrical, furniture, textile, paper and printing industries. The main docks are conveniently located at the mouth of the Avon at the head of the Bristol Channel (Avonmouth, Portishead). Bristol is primarily a port for bulk goods (oil, grain, fodder and fertilizer, wood); Motorway and railway junction; a rail tunnel under the Severn and two motorway bridges over the Severn provide good transport links to South Wales; international Airport.
Due to the destruction in World War II, the city has only preserved a few medieval buildings. From the Augustinian Abbey, founded in 1142, the cathedral (former monastery church; eastern part renewed in decorated style from 1298–1330, nave restored after damage in the 16th century 1868–88) and parts of the monastery buildings have been preserved from the founding period. The parish church of Saint Mary Redcliffe, originally located outside the city, was laid out in 1294 as a three-aisled transept basilica (interior predominantly in the perpendicular style of the 15th century). Among the secular buildings, the Theater Royal (1766), the oldest theater in Great Britain, deserves a special mention. The approximately 400 m long (span 214 m) Clifton Suspension Bridge about 80 m above the Avon is an early iron suspension bridge, built in 1836–64 by I. K. Brunel built.
Bristol has been an important trading center since the early Middle Ages thanks to its favorable traffic situation with access to the Atlantic Ocean and rich hinterland. In the second half of the 14th century BC flourished. a. the export of cloth to France (Gascony), Portugal and Ireland. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Bristol profited as a stopover from the slave trade between West Africa and the overseas colonies (West Indies, North America) and was also a leader in the sugar and tobacco trade. The decline of the city began with the end of the slave trade and the rise of the central and northern industrial areas; trade with the West Indies was now taken over by Liverpool.
Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the classic land of freedom of the press and is considered the “home country” of newspapers. – Press: The British newspaper market has been determined by the concentration on a few publishing groups since the beginning of the mass press. The largest press groups include Trinity Mirror plc., News Corporation Ltd. (R. Murdoch), Daily Mail & General Trust (DMGT), Guardian Media Group and Telegraph Media Group. – The national quality newspapers include the two conservative papers “The Daily Telegraph” (founded 1855) and “The Times” (founded 1785) as well as the liberal newspapers “The Guardian” (founded 1821) and “The Independent” (founded 1986). The Financial Times (founded in 1880) is widely recognized by the UK and international business community for its comprehensive and reliable information. The market leaders among tabloids are The Sun (founded 1921), Daily Mail (founded 1896) and Daily Mirror (founded 1903). The regional daily newspaper with the highest circulation is the free newspaper »Metro«. The Sunday newspapers also achieve high circulations, including “The Mail on Sunday”, “Sunday Mirror” and “The Sunday Times”. The oldest national Sunday newspaper is the »Observer«, first published in 1791. Important news magazines are “The Economist” and “Time Magazine”; the oldest magazine still in existence is the political weekly “Spectator” (founded in 1828). – News Agencies: The Press Association (PA), founded in 1868, co-op owned by British newspaper publishers; the financial news agency The Exchange Telegraph Co. Ltd. (EXTEL), founded in 1872. The former Reuters Group PLC, founded in 1851, is only partly active in the traditional news market. – broadcasting: As a regulatory commission, the Office of Communications (OFCOM) is responsible for the issuing of radio and television licenses, the definition of advertising guidelines and compliance with the quality and variety of programs in commercial television and has to promote competition among providers. – As early as the 1950s, a dual broadcasting system was established in Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the coexistence of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, founded in 1922) and the private, advertising-financed Independent Television (ITV), an association of 15 regional television companies today. In 1982 “Channel 4” and 1997 “Channel 5” (Viacom Inc.) were added as private TV stations.
In addition to the fee-financed main TV channels “BBC 1” and “BBC 2”, the BBC operates six special digital channels (including “BBC 3” and “BBC 4” with an upscale cultural, educational and entertainment program) throughout the country. Through its commercial subsidiary, BBC Global News Ltd. It also operates the international news and international information program “BBC World News” (founded in 1991) and the entertainment channel “BBC Entertainment” (founded in 1995 as “BBC Prime”). The UK pay-TV market is the most developed in Europe. Sky plc is the largest provider.
In the area of radio, the BBC broadcasts national, regional and local radio programs and the international broadcaster “BBC World Service”. There are also several commercial networks. Digital radio is standard, and most radio programs are also offered over the Internet.