According to abbreviationfinder, Bremen, is a city on both sides of the lower Weser, forms the main part of the state of Bremen, (2019) 567 600 residents (1947: 393 600 residents, 1971: 594 600 residents).
The new town lies on the left bank, the old town, the city center, as well as a number of old, now incorporated places (Hemelingen, Vegesack, Lesum, Blumenthal, Farge) on the right bank of the river. This forms, from Bremen called Unterweser, the lifeline of the city and secures its position as a seaport city, although the open sea is 113 km away.
Administrative and cultural institutions
Bremen is the seat of government of the state of Bremen and the seat of the highest courts of this state, as well as of state authorities. Bremen has universities (University of Bremen [opened in 1971], University of Bremen, University of the Arts Bremen, University of Public Administration Bremen, Jacobs University Bremen, Dresden International Univercity [Bremen location], International University [IUBH, Bremen location], Steinbeis University Berlin [ SHB, Bremen location], APOLLON University of Health Economics), scientific research institutes and societies (including ISL Institute for Shipping Economics and Logistics, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Center for Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen, with drop tower, Fraunhofer Institutes for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research as well as for Image-Based Medicine, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology), libraries and state archive.
Museums include Übersee-Museum with unique collections, Universum® Bremen (Science Museum), Focke-Museum – Bremen State Museum for Art and Cultural History, Gerhard-Marcks-Haus, Wilhelm Wagenfeld Haus, Museum Böttcherstraße (consisting of the Ludwig Roselius Museum and the Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum), Kunsthalle Bremen, Weserburg Museum of Modern Art and Bremen Broadcasting Museum. Bremen is the location of the ARD broadcaster Radio Bremen (radio and television company); also several theaters (opera, operetta, musical, drama, dance), the largest theater is the Theater am Goetheplatz, ÖVB-Arena, Congress Centrum Bremen (CCB), Rhododendron Park with botanical garden.
On the economy: Bremen, Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
First attested for the year 782 (in the biography of the first bishop Willehad, written in 860), Bremen developed on a flood-proof dune line to the right of the Weser as a ferry and transhipment point. Since 787 the seat of the diocese, since 845 of the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, 965 with market rights, it experienced its first heyday under Archbishop Adalbert (1043–72). The municipality, recognized by Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa as an independent municipality in 1186, fought for its independence from the archbishop’s ruler under the council, first mentioned in 1225. The oldest surviving record of the town charter dates from 1303-08. The walling of today’s old town was completed around 1300.
As a member of the Hanseatic League (since 1358), Bremen experienced an economic boom around 1400. Its constitution was regulated by the “Eintracht” of 1433 and the “Neue Eintracht” of 1534, so that the city was ruled by a councilor or senate until the 20th century. The acquisition of most of the Lower Weser area in the 15th century served to secure maritime traffic.
In 1522 the Dutch monk Heinrich von Zütphen led it the Reformation one; After bitter religious battles, the city turned to a moderate Calvinist creed that shaped its culture for centuries. Around 1600, the city experienced an economic heyday, which was closely related to the Netherlands, which also found its architectural expression. For military reasons, the new town was built in 1623-27 on the left of the Weser. The imperial freedom achieved in 1541 and confirmed in 1646 could only be defended at great sacrifice against Sweden and then against Hanover. The “golden period of the Bremen action” since the independence of the USA (from 1776/83) was interrupted by the Napoleonic wars (1803-09). 1810–13 the capital of the Wesermündungen department, which was part of the French Empire, became the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Name since August 18, 1806) 1815 member of the German Confederation. Mayor Johann Smidt (* 1773, † 1857) secured the seaport position by founding Bremerhaven in 1827 in collaboration with the hydraulic engineering director Johannes Jacobus van Ronzelen (* 1800, † 1865).
The democratic constitution of 1849 was replaced by a conservative one in 1854. In 1866 Bremen became a member of the North German Confederation, in 1871 a federal state (1919 Land) of the German Empire. The connection to the Reichszollgebiet (1888), the Weser correction and the construction of new harbors below the old town (from 1888) followed an economic upswing (including the world tobacco market); In 1901 and 1921, significant incorporations led to the expansion of the suburb.
During the November Revolution of 1918 in Germany, insurgent soldiers formed a workers and soldiers council in Bremen. After the Senate was ousted (January 1919), the revolutionary forces established a soviet republic under the name “Socialist Republic of Bremen”, which collapsed in February 1919 when it was occupied by German government troops. After the economic losses in the First World War, Bremen regained an important position, especially in trade and shipping, after the establishment of parliamentary-democratic conditions (constitution of May 18, 1920); In 1928, 12.5% of German imports and exports were handled via Bremen.
After the establishment of the National Socialist dictatorship (1933), the Reich government suspended the constitution of 1920 and united the city with the state of Oldenburg under a Reich governor. With regard to armaments, the construction of ships and aircraft was encouraged. The import was throttled in accordance with the National Socialist autarky policy. With the incorporation of previously Prussian municipalities (1939), the number of residents and the urban area of the city increased.
After the Second World War, British and then American troops occupied the city in 1945. The state of Bremen emerged in 1947 from the “Enclave Bremen”, consisting of Bremen and Bremerhaven, which belonged to the American zone of occupation from 1945–49.