The total population of the state has risen from 30,635,605 residents, As the 1920 census gave, to 41,560,147 according to an assessment of December 31, 1935, with an absolute increase of 10,924,542 units and a percentage equal to 35 %. All the states, the federal district, the Acre territory show population increases: the largest demographic nuclei are offered by the states of Minas Geraes (18.2% of the total population in 1935; 19.22% in 1920); Sao Paulo (16%; 14.99% respectively; Bahia (10.1% and 10.88%); Rio Grande do Sul (7.3%; 7.13%); Pernambuco (7.1% and 7, 03%); Rio de Janeiro (4.9% and 5.09%); Federal District (4.1% and 3.78% respectively). As always the territory of Acre (0.3%), the states of Amazonas (1.1%) and Matto Grosso (0, 9%) present the minimum percentages in singular contrast with the surface of the last two states, the highest of the Confederation. As a whole, therefore, the demographic physiognomy has not changed much: it is useful, moreover, to note that the most conspicuous increases are felt by the Federal District and by the state of San Paolo, in excellent environmental and economic conditions.
Despite the strong demographic increase, the density of the federation remains very low, with 4.9 residents per sq. km. The highest densities are found, in addition to the Federal District, in all coastal states, especially in Alagôas 142.2), Parahyba (24.5), Pernambuco (29.7), Sergipe (25.6), Rio de Janeiro (48.1), Saint Paul (26.8); the large inland regions are still very depopulated (Amazonas with 0.2 residents per sq. km.; Matto Grosso with 0.3; Territory of Acre with 0.8).
All cities show a conspicuous increase: two cities today exceed one million residents, namely Rio de Janeiro, the federal capital with 1,711,466 residents (1,157,873 in 1920) and San Paolo, which experienced an extraordinary increase, rising from 579,033 residents in 1920 to 1,120,405 residents fifteen years later.
Immigration is always kept within modest limits: it was 57,302 units on average per year in the period 1916-1925; it was 63,424 in the decade 1926-1935. As always, the greatest participation is given by the Portuguese (35.4% in the first decade; 32.6% in the second); followed by Italians and Spaniards in sharp decline (Italians from 15.4% to 8%; Spaniards from 15.2% to 5.9%); the Germans also showed a significant decrease (9.7% and 4.4% respectively). Overall, as always, the immigration of the neo-Latin element clearly prevails. The current total immigration remains at about half of the pre-war immigration current (136,561 immigrant individuals on average per year in the period 1909-1913).
Commerce and media. – Brazilian trade continues to remain very active: exports exceeded imports in the period 1926-1930 for a value of 10 million pounds per year, a figure which rises to 11.7 in the period 1931-1935.
The main export items are: coffee with an average of almost 15 million bags of 60 kg. in the period 1931-1935, against an annual average of 12.64 million in the years 1909-1913 and 13.72 in the period 1922-1926. There is therefore a steady increase in exports due to the ever-increasing demand from consumer countries. The export currents are directed mainly towards North America and the West Indies (8.72 million bags of 60 kg. In 1935, almost totally absorbed by the United States) and towards Europe: in total 5,558,054 bags of 60 kg., Mainly absorbed by France, Germany, Holland and Italy (439,252 bags); 534,818 bags were exported to Africa in 1935, mainly absorbed by Egypt, Algeria and the South African Union; 432.
Comparing these figures with those of 1926 and 1927 we note the constant progress of exports to North America (7.98 million bags in 1927; 7.3 in 1928; 8.7 in 1935); the decrease of the current towards Europe (6.08; 5.56; 5.55); the significant increase towards Asia, even if the figures are very modest (main buyers: Turkey, Syria, Rhodes, Japan). For Brazil 1996, please check pharmacylib.com.
Rubber marks an impressive decrease in exports: 39.2 million kg. exported in the period 1909-1913; 9.32 in the years 1922-1926; 8.74 in the period 1931-1935. The competition from Asian countries has now almost waned this economic activity which was very flourishing until the end of the century. XIX.
On the other hand, the export of cotton presents a magnificent increase, which gives 18 million kg. it has risen to almost 60 in recent years; the same applies to cocoa which in 36 years has tripled the quantity exported: 31,644,082 kg. in 1909-13, 97,091,800 in the period 1931-35; for tobacco and cocoa the values of kg are obtained for the period 1909-13. 26,650,000, for 1935 kg. 29.167.400.
The Brazilian trade balance continues to remain active also with regard to Italy: in the five years 1926-30 and 1931-1936 the imports from our country were 2,780,513 and 953,841 pounds per year; exports, on the other hand, of 4,352,235 and 1,290,682 respectively. The surplus in favor of Brazil is caused by the fact that we continue to import high value goods such as coffee and cocoa, while our exports (mainly manufactured goods) face competition from other countries.
The individual states have very different values with regard to import and export trade. The two states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro emerge in an undisputed way, both for imported and exported goods; this supremacy has remained unchanged for decades. It follows the state of Rio Grande do Sul at a great distance. While in these states, imports outnumber exports, those of NE. and the Amazon basin see exports exceed imports (eg Amazonas 5744 tons of average per year imported; 30,022 exported; Rio Grande do Norte 5902 and 25,259 respectively; Bahia 83,920 and 164,040, etc.).
As for the commercial movement of ports, Santos and Rio de Janeiro absolutely emerge. Also in this case we note the prevalence of exports, especially in the northern coastal ports and in river ports (eg Manáos).
The railway lines are constantly increasing: 31,861 km. in 1928; 33,106 km. in 1934. Southern states continue to emerge (Minas Geraes 7943 km., San Paolo 7226; Rio Grande do Sul 3124; Rio de Janeiro 2684; Paraná 1460, Santa Catharina 1186, etc.), while among the northern states they hold the first Bahia 2150 seats; Ceará 1240; Matto Grosso 1171; Pernambuco 1052, etc.).
As always, the Amazon basin is almost devoid of railways: Pará 374 km., Amazonas 5.1 only.
Merchant marine (p. 737). – It consists (1937) of 299 ships per ton. gross 476.007 (of which only 29, per ton. 47 thousand, motorized). Eighteen major shipping companies are assisted by the Treasury, whose help is essential to their fleets: 172 ships per ton. 356.111, mainly engaged in cabotage and river traffic (reserved for the flag). Among these companies the first place goes to Lloyd Brazileiro, whose fleet constitutes 55.31% of the entire national shipping and which manages the few overseas lines. To ensure its efficiency, a 1937 law required Lloyd’s assets to be incorporated into the national assets; the services will be industrially organized with administrative autonomy; the grant is increased to 40 thousand contos di reis for the modernization of the equipment and the improvement of services. The program is already underway: 12 ships of various types have been ordered from foreign shipyards, as there is no well-equipped shipbuilding industry in the country; offers have just been requested from other foreign shipyards for the construction of about twenty ships.