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Canada Agriculture and Fishing Overview


Agriculture and fishing

About seven percent of Canada's area is cultivated. Farmland is highly concentrated in the prairies of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba. It mainly grows wheat, barley and oilseeds, a large part of which is exported. On the west coast of British Columbia, grains, soybeans and other vegetables and fruits are grown. In the populous provinces of Ontario and Québec, rape, vegetables, maize and fruit are mainly grown. Fishing is important, but overfishing has created problems for the fishing industry. The country also has an extensive forest industry.

  • CountryAAH: Comprehensive import regulations of Canada. Covers import prohibitions and special documentation requirements for a list of prohibited items.

There are many dairy farmers in the area along the St. Lawrence River in Ontario, Quebec and in the coastal provinces. The breeding of pigs and poultry is also important. Livestock farming is also significant (primarily in Alberta, where about 40 percent of the country's cattle are located) and supplies the home market with dairy products and meat, but an increasing proportion also goes for exports. Québec is the world's largest producer of maple syrup.

Canada is the world's second largest wheat exporter. However, the size of exports can vary greatly from year to year. In addition, the country is the world's largest exporter of rapeseed and rapeseed oil (which is used, among other things, to produce biofuel).

  • Digopaul: Definition and brief introduction of Canada. Major cities are listed and popular images are presented for this country.

Since the 1960s, the number of family farms has been reduced and replaced by larger farms using modern technology. Many of the Canadian farmers are older. In order to get the economy going, about a quarter of a farmer works with other people. Farm sales of agricultural products directly to consumers have become increasingly common. High prices have resulted in almost only larger companies being able to afford to buy agricultural land.

Agriculture and fishing of CanadaAbout a quarter of the land area is covered by forest. Most of the forest is harvested in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. The United States and China are the most important export markets for timber and timber.

In 2010, environmental groups and several forest companies signed a contract, the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement (CBFA), which meant that 76 million hectares should be protected from unsustainable harvesting. In some areas, no logging should be allowed at all.

Breeding and hunting of fur animals are of local economic importance, not least for parts of the indigenous population. The traditional sales pitch declined after protests from animal lovers. International opinion in 1987 led to a ban on the hunting of seals whose white furs were particularly sought after. In 2003, however, sales hunting resumed on a larger scale. The government claimed that the number of seals had increased explosively and that they posed a threat to the fish stock.

In 2016, 66,000 seals were killed, which was clearly less than the federal quota of 400,000.

In 2016, the seal population was estimated at just over 7 million animals, almost three times as many as in the 1970s. At the same time, demand for seal products has dropped significantly in recent years, which has hit hard on many Inuit communities. In 2010, the EU imposed a ban on Canadian seal products. Also the US, Russia and Taiwan have stopped imports. However, there is a demand for sealskin within Canada and some are also exporting to Asia. In the fall of 2017, two restaurants in Toronto started serving seal meat.

Fishing is important along the Atlantic coast and in British Columbia. Salmon trout, herring, crabs, shrimp, mussels, mackerel and lobster are mainly fished. Fish farming has increased in importance in recent years, as has seafood fishing. A large part of the catch is exported.

Overfishing in the Northwest Atlantic in the 1990s led the authorities to temporarily halt much of the region's fishing. Disputes over fishing rights in the waters around Canada caused a conflict with the EU in 1995, which was resolved since the parties agreed to limit fishing quotas in the area, but the fish stock has not recovered. Researchers have questioned whether it is possible to rebuild the stock of cod. By 2017, however, the cod stock had grown to about a quarter of what it was in the 1980s. At the same time, there are signs that the stock of crabs and seafood is declining.

The fishing industry's problems have caused Newfoundland to lose about 14 percent of its population since the 1980s.

FACTS - AGRICULTURE

Agriculture's share of GDP

1.7 percent (2015)

Percentage of land used for agriculture

6.9 percent (2016)

2018

December

Changes in the electoral law are emphasized

December 10

Several controversial parts of the electoral law that the Conservative government implemented in 2014 are now being abolished (see June 2014). These include rules for how to legitimize themselves when voting, where voting cards would only be sent out to those who have a fixed address, which critics claimed would strike extra hard against the indigenous peoples. Also, the restrictions that exist in the voting rights of Canadians residing abroad are removed (those who lived abroad for more than five years would not be allowed to vote in Canadian elections). At the same time, an upper limit is imposed on the amount of campaign contributions a party may receive and a ban on receiving money from other countries. Companies like Facebook and Google are required to keep records of political ads on their platforms.

The arrest of Huaweichef creates tension for China

1 December

Meng Wanzhou, senior manager of Huawei's Vancouver office, as well as the daughter of the Chinese company's founder, is arrested. The arrest takes place since a US court requested her extradition to the US, where Meng and the company are accused of violating US export laws and sanctions against Iran. She is released on a $ 10 million bail on December 11, but also has to carry an electronic footcuff. Meng denies that she has done anything wrong, and her arrest leads to strong protests from China. Shortly thereafter, several Canadians are arrested in China, but only three are named: Michael Kovrig, a former Canadian diplomat who now works for the think tank International Crisis Group, businessman Michael Spavor and Sarah McIver, a teacher from Alberta who is accused of working illegally in China.

November

Canada faces sanctions against 17 Saudis

November 29th

Canada faces sanctions on 17 Saudis suspected of involvement in the assassination of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Turkey in early October. Their economic assets in Canada will be frozen and they will not be allowed to enter the country. Similar sanctions have been introduced by France, Germany and the United States.

No extension for UN missions in Mali

November 17

Canada will not extend its involvement in the UN peacekeeping effort beyond the year already promised. This means that the 250 Canadian soldiers will be taken home in July 2019. Defense Minister Harjit Sajjan says that Canada will then have carried out the effort promised. It is the first time since Rwanda in 1994 that the Canadian military participates in a peacekeeping mission.

Calgary says no to the 2016 Winter Olympics

November 15

Just over 56 percent of Calgary residents vote no for the city to host Olympic Games in 2026. That means there are only two candidates left, Stockholm and Milan and Cortina D'Ampezzo in Italy.

October

Trudeau launches new carbon tax

October 23

The Canadian government is launching a new carbon tax for those territories and provinces that did not sign under the new national climate framework, ie Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Yukon and Nunavut. This means that they have to pay 20 Canadian dollars for every ton of greenhouse gas emitted. The fee will then increase by 10 Canadian dollars a year, until 2022, when it should have reached 50 dollars. The money will then go back to the citizens of the provinces concerned, but that one-tenth will be used for health care, schools, the business community and to develop green alternatives. The idea is for the system to create incentives to reduce emissions from fossil fuels. A similar system already exists in British Columbia, Alberta and Quebec and is about to be introduced in the Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia,

Arms exports to Saudi Arabia head Trudeau

October 23

The Canadian government condemns the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Turkey. At the same time, the question of Canada's export of armored cars to Saudi Arabia is raised. The opposition is pressing for Canada to follow Germany's example and at least temporarily freeze all arms exports to the Gulf state. Prime Minister Trudeau, however, says it can be difficult considering how the contract with the Saudis, which was drafted by the conservative Harper government, is designed. Exactly what the settlement looks like is not public, as the terms have been classified on request by the Saudi. The deal has already been criticized by human rights organizations in the past, especially given that the Saudis may be using the vehicles in the ongoing conflict in Yemen. The contract worth 15 billion Canadian dollars is the largest arms deal in Canada's history.

HD: "Parliament has the right to enact laws without consulting indigenous peoples"

October 11

The Supreme Court (HD) states that Parliament does not need to consult the indigenous peoples in advance before submitting legislative proposals affecting their rights. Seven of the judges are behind the decision while two are voting against. The issue had been raised by the mikisew cree people who objected to two legislative packages presented by the former Conservative government in 2012 and which they believe violate their constitutional rights. The Court is on Ottawa's line, arguing that such a process could undermine Parliament's position. However, a small majority of the judges emphasize that the government (the Crown) still has an obligation to consult the indigenous peoples in these cases. The court also agreed that the federal court, which initially stood on mikisew's side,

The Coalition for the Future of Québec (CAQ) wins Québec's provincial election

October 1st

The Coalition for the Future of Québec (CAQ) wins the provincial election in Québec with just over 37 percent of the vote and 74 of the 125 seats. In second place comes the Liberals, who ruled the province up to the election, with almost 25 percent of the vote, followed by the separatist Quebec Party (PQ) and the left-wing Solidarity Québec (QS). The turnout is just over 66 percent. CAQ, led by François Legault, is a right-wing bourgeois party formed in 2011, which wants to lower taxes and advocates that Québec should continue to be a part of Canada. The party has its strongest support among the province's French-speaking majority. It will be the first time in almost half a century that Quebec will not be ruled by the Liberals or PQ. CAQ's election victory is also seen as a sign of how support for an independent Québec has fallen in recent years. During the election campaign, the Liberals have faced criticism for cuts in health care and school. Legault, for its part, has been criticized for its plans to expel immigrants who fail a language and assessment test after three years in the province, and has admitted that he does not have the power to do so. However, he has promised to reduce immigration to Québec by one-fifth, even though there is a shortage of skilled labor. The CAQ leader is a political veteran who has previously been to the Independence Camp. In MacLean's magazine, he is described as the alternative that remained for those voters who were tired of being controlled by the Liberals or PQ. Almost 42 percent of the members of the new provincial parliament are women, which is more than in all other Canadian provincial assemblies (in Ontario, the share is 39.5 percent).

September

Canada accepts the USMCA Free Trade Agreement

September 30th

Canada accepts the new free trade agreement previously negotiated by the US and Mexico, which will replace the previous Nafta agreement between the three countries. Exactly what the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) means for Canada, however, is not known, but according to newspaper data, the United States should gain increased access to the Canadian dairy market. within Nafta to resolve trade disputes should remain, something that has been important to Canada, and Canadians should also have managed to secure some protection for their automotive industry from any new US tariffs, but the United States has not announced any changes to its tariffs. introduced for Canadian steel and aluminum.

Aung San Suu loses Canadian citizenship

September 28

The House of Commons votes unanimously to deprive Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi of the Canadian citizenship she was awarded in 2007 for her work on democracy. This is after the MPs voted earlier in the month to call the persecution of the Rohingy in Myanmar a genocide.

Unclear exit in the provincial election in New Brunswick

September 24th

No party succeeds in reaching a majority in the New Brunswick provincial election. The Liberals get the most votes, almost 38 percent and 21 of the 49 seats, while the Progressive Conservative Party (PCP) wins 22 seats, but only 32 percent of the vote. Two smaller parties New Brunswick's Alliance of People (New People's New Brunswick) and the Green Party each receive 3 seats and thus receive a wave role in the party that will govern the province.

Peace issues in focus when the world's female foreign ministers meet

September 21

Montreal hosts the first meeting of all the women's foreign ministers in the world. The meeting led by Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland will address issues of women in politics and other leadership roles, how to strengthen democracy, promote peace and security, and prevent gender-based violence.

The lower house: the assault on Myanmar's Rohingya is genocide

September 20

Canada's lower house voted unanimously to designate the Myanmar military's assault on the Rohingya in Myanmar as genocide. They thus endorse the conclusions drawn in the UN final report on the human rights crimes committed in Rakhine State since autumn 2017. They call on the UN to bring the cases to the ICC to bring the Myanmar generals to justice.

New populist right-wing party is formed

September 14

Canada's People's Party (PPC), a new federal party on the right, is formed by Maxime Bernier, who held several minster posts in the Conservative government that ruled Canada from 2006 to 2015. Bernier says the party will run in the 2019 parliamentary elections and that it wants to reduce the state's influence, lower taxes and implement a series of deregulations. Political correctness is no longer feasible, he argues. Bernier, who lost the party leader's battle in the Conservative party against Andrew Scheer, claims that his old party has moved too much toward the politics of misconduct and that it has lost touch with ordinary Canadians.

August

Court controversially stops oil pipeline construction

August 31st

The Federal Court of Appeals, at least temporarily, halted construction of the Trans Mountain pipeline, which is planned from Edmonton, Alberta, to the Vancouver area of ​​British Columbia. The Court believes that the Ottawa government failed to take sufficient account of the concern many indigenous peoples feel about the project. Another objection is that not enough has been done to investigate the impact that increased tanker traffic will have on the environment. The federal government said in May it would buy the oil pipeline from the US oil company Kinder Morgan for $ 4.5 billion Canadian dollars.

Canada and US do not agree on new Nafta agreement

August 31st

There will be no agreement between the US and Canada on the new US-Mexico trade agreement. The cornerstone is primarily that the United States wants to get rid of a system for resolving future trade disputes between the countries, which Canada wants to keep. Another dispute concerns Canadian import duties on dairy products. But despite Trump setting an ultimatum that negotiations must be completed today, the parties agree to continue the talks this coming week.

Trump is putting pressure on Canada in the Nafta talks

August 28th

After a year of negotiations, US President Donald Trump announces that the US and Mexico have reached a deal on a new trade agreement to replace Nafta from 1994. The deal is preliminary and must be approved in both countries' congresses. If the agreement is approved, it must be valid for 16 years. It is unclear how it is with Canada that has not participated in the negotiations in recent weeks. Trump says the United States will impose tariffs on car imports from Canada unless talks with the Canadian government yield results. He sets a tight deadline and says Canada must decide by August 31st. Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland cancels her European visit to travel to Washington for further negotiations.

British Columbia announces Christmastime due to forest fires

August 15th

The government of British Columbia announces a 14-day Christmastime when 560 forest fires are raging in the province. At least 3,000 people have been evacuated from their homes. Later, health warnings are issued in several of the prairie provinces when smoke from the fires blew east.

Saudi Arabia punishes Canada for criticism

August 6th

Canada's ambassador is undesirable in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi ambassador to Canada is called home. The reason is that Canada has criticized the arrest of Saudi regime critics, which according to the Saudi Foreign Ministry is perceived as interfering with the country's internal affairs. New trade agreements or investments will also not be given the go-ahead, and the Saudi central bank will begin to dispose of assets in Canada.

July

Two dead and several shot dead in Toronto

23 July

A perpetrator shoots nine people in central Toronto. Two of them die. The man, who is said to be suffering from mental illness, is killed by police in connection with the attack.

Canada faces tariffs on US goods

July 1st

Canada introduces 25 percent duty on steel and aluminum from the United States. But also goods such as sweets, pizza, whiskey, boats, toilet paper, orange juice and 200 other items are subject to a customs duty of 10 percent. The government has also announced support of two billion Canadian dollars to the steel and aluminum industries. The list is, according to government representatives, compiled to put pressure on the US government.

June

Canadian UN soldiers arrive in Mali

June 24th

The first Canadian soldiers arrive in Mali to participate in the UN peacekeeping operation Minusma. In the coming weeks, a total of 250 Canadian soldiers will be stationed in the African country for one year. About 13,000 people participate in the UN operation in Mali.

New law allows marijuana to be used for everyday use

June 19

Canada becomes the second country in the world after Uruguay to legalize marijuana for everyday use. This has been done since the Senate, with a clear majority, has given its approval. The new law, the Cannabis Act, will come into force on October 17. Until then, the provinces must have prepared how the sales will go. For a few months, there has been a fight between the Senate and the House of Commons regarding the rules to apply, where the Senate has tried to push through some 40 amendments to the law. The Senate, for example, had wanted to give the provinces the right to ban the cultivation of marijuana, something Nunavut, Mantitoba and Quebec want, but it was rejected by the government. Using marijuanafor medical reasons has been legal in Canada since 2001. The new law gives Canadians over 18 or 19 years (different age limits in different provinces) the right to operate four plants for their own use, and hold up to 30 grams of marijuana. However, it is pointed out that it is still prohibited to drive a car under the influence of drugs or to bring drugs into the country.

Trump conflicts with other G7. Trudeau receives strong support at home

June 9

During a two-day summit in Québec between the G7the leaders of the countries end President Donald Trump's collision course with the other six major powers. This is especially true of the free trade issue, where the others are protesting against US new tariff barriers and planning countermeasures, with the risk of an escalated trade war. Despite the contradictions, the meeting ends with a joint communique. But Trump changes shortly afterwards and withdraws his signature in a Twitter post. He accuses in particular Prime Minister Trudeau of being "lying and" weak "because of statements made at a press conference. Other G7 leaders express dismay at Trump's actions. The Canadian press emphasizes that Trudeau has not said anything new, and an NDP motion in support of the Prime Minister's line is gaining strong and cross-border support in the Canadian lower house.The World Bank has agreed to invest almost $ 4 billion in education for girls and women in conflict areas. Five countries out of seven promise to establish a plan to protect the seas as well as one to stop all plastic pollution (the US and Japan stand outside). A statement also places great emphasis on measures to stop climate change (only the US chooses not to support this).

PCP wins Ontario provincial election

7 June

The bourgeois Progressive Conservative Party (PCP) wins the provincial election in Ontario with almost 41 percent of the vote, against almost 34 percent for the Social Democratic NDP and 19 percent for the Liberal Party that has ruled the province since 2003. The PCP gets 76 of the 124 seats in the provincial parliament. That means Doug Ford, brother of the scandal-ridden Rob Ford who was Toronto's mayor between 2010 and 2014, will be Ontario's new head of government. Ford, who ran a populist campaign, criticizing the "elite", is taking a stand against the media and pledging to lower income taxes and gasoline, hydroelectric and beer prices. Another point is about scrapping the system created to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, where companies are allocated an emission credit, and if they exceed that limit, they have to pay for new, but if they reduce their emissions instead, they can sell what remains. He is described in Canadian media as a relatively moderate conservative politician. Ford's representative as Ontario's head of government Kathleen Wynne resigns as leader of the Liberal Party.

The trade war threatens when the US introduces customs duties

June 1st

The US decides to impose tariffs of 25 and 10 percent respectively on steel and aluminum from Canada, the EU countries and Mexico. US President Donald Trump cites national security as a reason. The decision is heavily criticized by both Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and the EU Trade Commission's Cecilia Malmström, who claims that tariffs are in violation of WTO rules. The United States buys about half of its aluminum from Canadian companies because prices are lower in Canada than in the United States, much due to low Canadian energy prices and more efficient production.

May

The government says no to Chinese corporate acquisition

24th of May

The government stops the Chinese company CCC International from buying the Toronto-based construction company Aecon, citing national security.

15 were injured in bombings in Mississauga

24th of May

Two men fire a home-made bomb at an Indian restaurant in Mississauga, Canada's sixth largest city, located near Toronto, Ontario. 15 people are injured, three of them difficult. It is unclear what motives the perpetrators have.

British Columbia sues Alberta for fuel shutdown law

May 23

British Columbia sues Alberta for enacting a law that allows the province to shut off fuel supplies to its neighboring province. The lawsuit is being criticized by Alberta government chief Rachel Notley, who tells The Globe and Mail magazine that British Columbia on one hand does not want their oil to be transported there, and on the other, Alberta suits to get access to the oil. British Columbia's head of government John Horgan says there are two different things: transport of dirty oil sand that threatens the environment and fuels needed for residents' transport. The judicial process is just one of several around the disputed Trans Mountain pipeline project (see Natural Resources and Energy). Prime Minister Trudeau argues that the project is of national interest and needed to make it easier for Canada to sell oil to countries other than the United States.

The world's largest conservation area for coniferous forests is created in Alberta

15th of May

Four new national parks Kazan, Richardson, Dillon River and Birch River are formed in Alberta. At the same time, Birch Mountains Wildland Provincial Park is expanding. Together with Wood Buffalo National Park, they cover the world's largest nature reserve for coniferous forest, 6.7 million hectares. It informs representatives of the provincial government, the federal government, the Tallcree First Nation group, the oil sands giant Syncrude and the nature conservation authorities in Canada.

More and more Nigerians are seeking asylum in Canada

May 8

The flow of people crossing the US-Canada border without permission continues. Of the approximately 7,300 that came that way during the first months of the year, the majority were Nigerians. Transport Minister Marc Garneau says 90 percent of those who do not meet the criteria for political asylum in Canada. Most of those seeking asylum come to Quebec asking the federal government for help in dealing with all new arrivals. At Canada's request, the United States has promised to be more restrictive when it comes to granting Nigerians visas there.

April

Ten dead when van drives on pedestrians

April 23

Ten people are killed and several seriously injured when a man in a rented van drives pedestrians along a main street in an immigrant-tight part of northern Toronto. The man, who is of Armenian origin, is later arrested by police. Eight of the ten victims are women. There is nothing to suggest that the man belongs to any terrorist movement, but a text that the man has written in social media indicates that he deliberately chose to attack women.

Alberta takes new fighting action against British Columbia

April 17

The Alberta Provincial Parliament is voting to give the provincial government new powers to limit oil and gas supplies to British Columbia. When the new rules come into force, the power companies must apply for permission to sell oil and gas to the neighboring province. The measure is a response to the conflict over the Trans Mountain project (see Natural Resources and Energy).

Trudeau defends bomb attack against Syria

April 14

Prime Minister Trudeau expresses his support for the US, UK and France bombings against installations near Damascus and Homs in Syria where the regime is said to be manufacturing chemical weapons.

Uncertain future for oil pipeline projects in British Columbia

April 9

The American company Kinder Morgan says it is, at least temporarily, suspending all work on a controversial oil pipeline in British Columbia because of opposition from the provincial government. It announces that it will not invest any more money in the project if the provincial government does not change before May 31. On March 31, the company was sued by the provincial government of British Columbia in the Federal Court of Appealwhich allowed Kinder Morgan to disregard local statutes during the actual construction work. Several other legal proceedings are ongoing, including the Supreme Court handling a complaint from people from the indigenous peoples in the area concerned. British Columbia has also appealed to the court to see if its government can gain control of the oil freight through the province, for environmental reasons. However, the Trans Mountain Expansion project is supported by both the federal government and the provincial boards of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and aims to ship oil from Alberta to Alberta head of government Rachel Notley says her province may want to invest its own money in the project. Prime Minister Trudeau also makes a mark and calls on British Columbia's head of government John Horgan to stop sabotaging the project and respect it is the federal government that decides the matter. At the same time, Trudeau promises that oil pipeline "will get rid of". At the same time, opponents warn of severe consequences for both the environment and the climate if construction is allowed to continue. Around 200 activists who oppose the oil pipeline have been arrested in connection with protests against the building. However, it seems that the majority of Canadians stand on Trudeau's side and support the building. This also applies in British Columbia (see also February 2018).

March

"Canada does not meet climate targets"

March 28

Canada will not be able to meet its climate targets by 2020. A report from the Environment Commission states. Greenhouse gas emissions will be about 20 percent higher than planned. This will also make it difficult for the country to meet the climate targets it committed to meeting at the climate summit in France 2015. Canada has pledged until 2020 to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 17 percent compared to the 2005 level, and by 30 percent up to year 2030.

Canada has four Russian diplomats

March 26

Canada expels four Russian diplomats and refuses three others to come to the country as a result of a nerve poisoning attack on a Russian former spy and his daughter in the UK in early March. It is taking place in concerted action with some 20 countries, mainly in the EU, in solidarity with the British government accusing Russia of being behind the attack. In total, over 100 Russian diplomats are expelled, 60 of whom are from the United States. Moscow denies all involvement in the poison attack and threatens with countermeasures. At the end of March, Russia expels four Canadian diplomats.

Trudeau apologizes for executions of tsilhqot'in leaders in 1864

March 26

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau apologizes for British authorities' hanging of six men by the tsilhqot'in people in what is today British Columbia 1864. Five chiefs were accused of killing 14 white road workers and were tricked into a peace talks meeting to end the so-called Chilcotine War. A sixth chieftain was later executed near New Westminster. At the same time as the war, a smallpox epidemic was going on that would cost 14,000 lives. As a result, the indigenous population of the area was halved.

Proposed stricter gun laws

March 20

The Liberal government announces plans to tighten the country's gun laws, Bill C-71. According to it, arms dealers should establish records of the weapons they sell, and the police should be able to access them, but a special permit is required. The police should also make a more accurate inspection of the people who buy weapons (now the inspection covers only the last five years). Crime in Canada is declining overall, but gun crime is increasing at the same time. In 2016, more than 2,600 crimes were registered using firearms, which was an increase of about one-third since 2013.

NDP leader in windy weather in "Sikh issue"

March 15th

NDP leader Jagmeet Singh ends up in blustery weather after media reports that he was speaking at a meeting in San Francisco in 2015 in the US where demands were placed on an independent Sikh state, Khalistan. Behind him was a poster with a picture of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, leader of a Sikh extremist group killed in a gunfight between his group and Indian soldiers at the Golden Temple in Amritsar in 1994 (see India: Modern History). Singh referred to the incident as a " genocide. ""on Sikhs. Canadian media also reports that Singh participated in another 2016 meeting, organized by the National Sikh Youth Federation, based in the United Kingdom, which advocates independence for Khalistan. Singh is now clearly distancing himself from terrorism and other use of violence. The Sikhs the issue was raised during Prime Minister Trudeau's visit to India, when it was said to create tensions between India and Canada, where there are close to half a million Sikhs.

Canada sends UN troops to Mali

March 17

Canada decides to send troops and helicopters to the UN operation in Mali. The 200 Canadian soldiers are stationed in the country for a twelve-month period. It is Canada's first time participating in a UN operation in Africa for the first time since 1994. Prime Minister Trudeau has previously promised that Canada will contribute 600 people.

Pacific free trade agreement clear

March 8th

Canada and 10 other countries sign the Free Trade Agreement (CPTPP) (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Parthership). The agreement is also called TPP-11 and is a slightly revised version of TPP (see Foreign Trade). The changes are a result of the US withdrawing from the TPP before it came into force. The CPTPP is presented as a counter to the anti-free-trade policy pursued by US President Donald Trump.

February

Investment in women in the 2018 budget

February 27th

Measures to equalize wage differences between women and men. This is one of the main points in Finance Minister Bill Morneu's budget for 2018. In addition to equal salaries for federally employed staff, families with two parents who share the same share of parenthood should receive an extra five weeks' leave and new investments should be made to increase the number of women who works with qualified tasks in science and technology. Several Canadian media point out that in order to win the election next year, the Liberals must maintain their strong support among the country's women. The gap between the Liberals and the Conservative Party has narrowed recently. In the latest poll, the Liberals supported over 38 percent of voters, against just under 33 percent for the Conservative Party, just over 17 percent for the NDP, slightly over 6 percent for the Green Party and just under 4 percent for BQ. Other important items in the budget are just over 4 billion Canadian dollars to improve the living conditions of the indigenous population, 750 million Canadian dollars for cyber security and 2 billion Canadian dollars for feminist assistance. In addition, new money will be added to examine old cases of sexual abuse committed by the police, as well as to combat gender-based violence, sexual abuse and harassment, but also lower taxes for small business owners. It is also pointed out that investments in new infrastructure are slower than planned (and therefore there is money left over from previous years). Via Rail Canada, however, get ready to buy new trains for traffic between Quebec and Ontario It is also pointed out that investments in new infrastructure are slower than planned (and therefore there is money left over from previous years). Via Rail Canada, however, get ready to buy new trains for traffic between Quebec and Ontario It is also pointed out that investments in new infrastructure are slower than planned (and therefore there is money left over from previous years). Via Rail Canada, however, get ready to buy new trains for traffic between Quebec and Ontario.

The Sikh issue is believed to create problems for Trudeau in India

February 21st

Prime Minister Trudeau and his family travel to India for an eight-day visit. Media, both in Canada and abroad, speculate that Indian Prime Minister Narandra Modi is trying to highlight his dissatisfaction with Trudeau by waiting several days to meet him, because of what is seen as too close contacts between the government and Sikh separatists in Canada who want their own state in Punjab. However, Amanrinder Singh, leader of Punjab state, emphasizes that Trudeau assured him that he does not support any Sikh separatist movement. Modi and Trudeau finally meet. One important purpose of the meeting is to increase trade between Canada and India, which today amounts to only about 8 million Canadian dollars. There is a relatively large Sikh group in Canada. Four of Trudeau's ministers are Indian-Canadians, all of whom are Sikhs.

New oil pipeline creates conflict between Alberta and British Columbia

February 5

A conflict over an oil pipeline flares up between the provinces of Alberta and British Colombia. This has been done since British Colombia imposed restrictions on the shipping of diluted bitumen, a particularly crude oil, via the province. It is seen by Alberta as a way to stop the construction of the Trans Mountain pipeline from Edmonton to the Vancouver / Seattle area of ​​British Columbia. The provincial government in Alberta responds by interrupting the talks on electricity cooperation. As it is today, British Columbia imports cheap electricity from Alberta at night, which is then exported at a higher price. The Ottawa government approved the construction of the oil pipeline in the fall of 2016. The high tone between the provinces also has political causes. In British Columbia, a coalition governs the NDP and the Green Party, which places great emphasis on environmental issues. In Alberta, which is also governed by the NDP,

January

Bombardier avoids US penalties

January 26

US decision to impose penalties on some planes by Canadian aircraft manufacturer Bombardier is revoked following a decision by U SA's International Trade Commission (ITC). Boeing had accused Bombardier of dumping the prices, using state subsidies. The United States had previously decided to impose penalties of 292 percent for planes from Bombardier's C series.

Canada reports US to WTO

January 11

Canada is turning to the World Trade Organization (WTO)) to get it tested if the US violates trade rules, including by introducing customs duties in order to reduce imports of goods where prices are considered to be dumped or subsidies have distorted competition. Such fees may be allowed, but must comply with strict WTO rules, which the Canadian government claims the United States does not. In its complaint, Canada lists 188 cases in which it is believed that the United States did not follow the rules. These affect not only Canada but also the EU, Brazil, India, China, South Africa and others. The US rejects the criticism, saying that Ottawa is going to China's affairs and risks damaging Canada's interests. Among other things, the United States has imposed penalties on Canadian timber and is considering doing so for stationery as well. Disputes also exist regarding Canada's export of aircraft and dairy products to the US market. Some analysts questioned the appropriateness of starting the process now, just two weeks before the sixth round of negotiations on the Nafta free trade agreement should begin. Still others believe that the complaint can help Canada in the ongoing deliberations

Finance Minister Morneau is released by ethics commissioner

January 8

Canadian Ethics Commissioner Mary Dawson states that Finance Minister Bill Morneau and his family had not benefited from any insider information when selling their shares in the family company Morneau Shepell 2016 (see November 2017). The decision on a tax increase for high income earners was announced on November 4, 2016, Morneau sold his shares on November 30 of the same year and the legislation was approved by Parliament just over a week later. The share price of Morneau Shepell fell after the sale. Morneau has also been criticized after revealing that Morneau Shepell had a Canadian $ 8 million contract with Canada's central bank, for which Dawson has ministerial responsibility. However, Dawson believes that Morneau has not been involved in the Bank of Canada's decision to renew its contract with the company. The question of whether the finance minister was in a conflict of interest when he presented a proposal for a new pension law is not settled.

Record low unemployment

7 th of January

In December 2017, unemployment had fallen to 5.7 percent, which is the lowest figure since 1976. However, among 15- to 24-year-olds it was almost twice as high.

 


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